Sunday, March 22, 2015

Resource Economics

If economics is primarily concerned with allocation of resources among competing wants, it ought to be concerned with the health of resources & ensuring their continued supply. It does nothing of the kind but mainstream economics tries to interpret & analyze the working of Industrial Capitalism and that too without any attempt to probe the foundations on which Industrial Capitalism stands.

Ideally environmental economics should fill in these gaps but again it seems to be content in finding out & advocating certain palliatives which tend to bring in distributive justice in societal wealth distribution. The concept of sustainable development is introduced to counter the increasing depletion & deterioration of resources and promote their wise use. Resources are divided into man-made capital and natural capital. Economic sustainability is ensured if & when man-made capital substitutes for natural capital. But environmental sustainability cannot be achieved. Therefore the two are not perfect substitutable. Certain other requirements are to be fulfilled if environmental sustainability is to be achieved.

Ultimately it all boils down to putting restrictions on economic activity and irrational preferences expressed in the market. A centrally directed planning approach cannot be accepted as it involves denial of consumer sovereignty and individual liberty. Some writers adopt a view that ecosystem requirements are more important than consumer sovereignty. But it is by no means easy to judge ecosystem requirements when natural ecosystems are hard to find as most of them are impacted and modified by human activities and fulfilling ecosystem requirements may prefer and satisfy wants of certain consumers which denying those of others.

A more realistic approach would be to recognize that environmental problems have emerged essentially as and when technology was geared to increase the scale of economic activity to gigantic proportions. It is in response to the necessity of continuously increasing production to satisfy on the one hand the increasing wants of consumers and on the other the belief that increase in production will lead to a trickle-down effect to achieve a better distribution of wealth in a society.

Scaling down economic activity may involve use of efficient technology to minimize energy and material use, use of alternative sources of energy and even materials and properly ascribing prices to environmental (free goods) and nature’s services. It is a moot question however, if distributive justice and societal welfare can be achieved if all this is adopted.

A fourth approach which prescribes local resources use to satisfy local wants is likely to bring in far more social equity than the thrice approaches mentioned above. The problems of limiting consumer sovereignty and reducing the scale of production are sought to be addressed here not by establishing a central planning authority but- by decentralizing authority as well as investment. If priority is given to use of local resources their care, maintenance and enhancement should also have top priority. Under Panchayat Raj adequate powers are available to grass root institutions to achieve this. Some enlightened Panchayats are already taking advantage of powers conferred on them.

If wise utilization of local resources results in an agricultural surplus over and above the basic necessities of the local population, it can be marketed and profits can accrue to the Panchayat. Local resources thereby will be given a value which is honored by the market. This value can be enhanced, local purchasing power increased, if local cultivars can be demonstrated to possess a unique taste, high nutritional qualities and durability. Marketing of such products will bring in higher profits and large purchasing power to grassroots organizations and rural public, thereby enhancing their interest and capacity to care for the quality and quantity of local resources.

Demand and supply will have then an organic relationship with such basic resources as soil and water and will not be driven solely by advances in technology as happens today.

Mainstream economics has been accused of not caring for the quality of consumer choices and the resultant composition of output. Irrational consumer preferences propelled slowly by technological advance have resulted in a product- mix containing mainly of intermediate goods demanded by the rich and privileged when much of the resources are allocated to such production, the owners of resources are only interested in the amount of rent that they would collect and not exactly care and maintenance of resources. They will be more interested in high short-term gains and not lower but assured gains over a longer time.

When demand and supply are organically related the character of demand and the composition of supply are likely to be different giving priority to satisfaction of basic needs of the masses than production of higher values, intermediate goods meant for the rich.

Eventually industrial capitalism and fossil fuel economy are likely to be replaced by natural capitalism and carbohydrates based economy.

All this of course is easier said than done. A complete change of paradigms is in order. The legal emphasis needs to change from laws protecting exploitation of resources to laws protecting conservation of resources. Technological content needs to change in a similar fashion. We need greater doses and variety in what today is called appropriate technology- small scale and energy and material efficient. Likewise radical changes are needed in our educational system. It may be easier to motivate groups of children in rural areas to take care of their own local resources such as the hill behind the village, the stream flowing through it, the quality of soil in their fields and the wild flora and fauna in and around the village. City children are already goaded to demonstrate against air pollution and traffic indiscipline. They can be further exposed to the realities of city’s impact on the surrounding countryside and how resources and landscapes destroyed during city’s expansion can be restored and regenerated.

Such a paradigm change may also involve tremendous saving- in terms of reduced or abolished subsidies, in terms of saving in energy and materials use, in terms of transport and traffic and in terms of reduced waste and garbage and obviating the need for centralized gigantic projects.

As resources are diverted away from production of unnecessary or intermediate goods, the entire culture based on demand stimulation and promotion of a voluptuous life style should be replaced by one which emphasizes quality of life including adequate medical care, healthy and nutritious food for all, outdoor games and healthy recreation care of the aged and disabled and promotion of arts and crafts.

The present political parties both in power and in the opposition are incapable of bringing about such a paradigm change. A properly organized Green Party with strong rural roots and urban branches appears to be the harbinger of change.

Something needs to be stated about the ownership of natural resources. It is not necessary to do away with individual ownership. At the village level individual ownership of land etc. can be retained but its use should be according to the needs of the village plan. Water may be individually allocated according to the crop pattern decided by the village. (Phad (fxD) system from north Maharashtra which implies exactly these things needs to be popularized)

As villages become self-reliant in resource use, as quality of life in villages is enhanced, the supply of resources to cities (having top priority today) will be reduced putting a stop to today’s unending urban growth. It may even result in reverse migration from urban to rural areas.

Lastly a word about the necessity of globalization, integrating Indian economy with the emerging world order.  Ideally this paradigm also needs to change.

India is location in the world is unique, a fact recognized by travelers who crisscrossed India from east and west since ancient times. The result is high biodiversity and resource availability. With their proper care and utilization Indians can be self-sufficient despite the population pressure. Globalization is sought by countries which are or have become poor in resources and biodiversity. They need resources from other countries to satisfy the needs of their pampered life style. They cannot survive without export and import- export of technology and weapons and import of natural resources. India however, can be quite selective in adopting globalization. We need technology and knowledge to bolster our security needs. We do not need technology and knowledge which guzzle our resources and cater to individual ego (like expensive cars). On the other hand we can export knowledge based on the study of biodiversity such as their case & maintenance & innovative uses for medicine, as raw materials etc.

In essence care & wise utilization of resources opens up tremendous opportunities of employment, increase in purchasing power of the masses, and enhancement of the quality of life in rural areas.


                                                                                                                       Prakash Gole

Monday, February 3, 2014

इतिहास, अर्थशास्त्र आणि पर्यावरण 
paRqvaIvar maaNasaacaa pa`vaoSa haoNyaapaUvaI_ jyaa GaTnaa GaDlyaa tyaaMnaa {tk`xaMtaI Asao mhNataa yao[_la AaiNa maanavaacaa {dya JaalyaanaMtarcyaa GaTnaaMnaa [itahasa mhNataa yao[_la. maaNasaanao tyaacyaa AaQaIcyaa kxaLabaÕla mhNajao {tk`xaMtaIbaÕla Amaapa saMSaaoQana koxlao Aaho.tyaacaa inaYkxYa_ Asaa idsataao kxI pa`gataI, AQaaogataI yaa maanavaI saMkxlpanaa {tk` aMtaIlaa laagaU paDta naahIta. paNa kxaoNyaa ekxa ApaGaataanao paRqvaIvar jaIva (Life) inamaa_Na Jaalao AaiNa maga paRqvaIvarIla vaataavarNaaSaI jamavaUna GaoNao, tyaata jagaNao AaiNa pa`janana kxrNao hoca jaIvaaMcao Eaoya zrlao.
          paRqvaIcyaa gaaByaata paaNyaacaI vaaf haotaI ha camatkxar mhTlaa paaihjao kxarNa paRqvaIvar paaNaI nasatao tar jaIvaaMcaI inaima_taI JaalaIca nasataI. paaNyaacao sauriXata kxvaca saaoDUna jaimanaIvar svataM~apaNao jagaNyaacaI saXamataa pa`aNyaaMnaa gaaztaa AalaI kaoTËavaQaI vaYaa_Mcyaa kxalaavaQaInaMtar. paRqvaIBaaovataI AaoJaaona qar (laoyar) tayaar haoNao AaiNa vaataavarNaataIla pa`aNavaayaUcao pa`maaNa vaaZNao yaa gaaoYTI jaovha pa`tyaXaata Aalyaa, taovhaca jaimanaIvar jaIvaaMcaI {tk`xaMtaI JapaTËanao JaalaI. tyaacabaraobar pa`aNavaayaUiSavaaya jagaNaaro jao jaIva haotao, tao naYT Jaalao.
          {tk`xaMtaI saaMgatao kxI yaa GaTnaa haoNyaasa fxar kxalaavaQaI laagalaa. bauÔI kxmaivaNyaaAaQaI jaIvaaMnaI SaarIirkx  SaWtaI kxmaaivalaI AaiNa baraca kxaL raXasaI SarIro AsaNaa%yaa mahakxaya pa`aNyaaMnaI paRqvaIvar AXarSa: QauDgaUsa Gaatalaa. paNa kxaoNatyaahI pa`kxarcyaa Aitarokxata tyaacyaa ivanaaSaacaI baIjao dDlaolaI Asataata, ho {tk`xaMtaInao daKavaUna idlao Asao mhNataa yao[_la. kxarNa kxalaaMtaranao ho raXasaI pa`aNaI naYT Jaalao AaiNa ekxa icamaukxlyaa pa`aNyaanao jagaNyaata baajaI maarlaI. yaa pa`aNyaacyaa jagaNyaabaraobarca paRqvaIvar ek navao yauga Avatarlao Asao mhNaavaosao vaaTtao. SaWtaIcyaa vaca_svaacaa jamaanaa Aataa saMpalaa AaiNa saur} Jaalaa bauÔIcyaa vaca_svaacaa jamaanaa. tyaacaI pairNataI JaalaolaI idsatao maanava pa`aNyaata. {tk`xaMtaIcaa [itahasa haotaao taao yaamauLoca- SaWtaIpaoXaa bauÔI EaoYz hoca jaNaU maanavaacao Aistatva paRqvaIvar daKavaUna dotao Aaho. maga ho Karo Aaho kxa?
          SaWtaIcao raXasaI r}pa QaarNa koxlyaavarca itacao vaca_sva saMpauYTata Aalao, ho jar Karo Asaola tar bauÔInao raXasaI r}pa QaarNa koxlyaavar bauÔIjaIvaI pa`aNaIhI Asaoca naYT haoNaar ho AaoGaanao Aalao. evaZoca navho tar SaWtaIpaoXaa bauÔI EaoYz pa`aNaI fxar JapaTËanao ivanaaSaakxDo jaaNaar. ivanaaSaapa`ta jaaNyaacaI tyaaMcaI Xamataa maaozI AsaNaar, AsaohI vaaTU laagatao.
          maanavaI pa`vaoSaabaraobar {tk`xaMtaIcaa [itahasa Jaalaa, taaopaya_MtacaI {tk`xaMtaIcaI pairmaaNao pauYkxL AMSaI saMpauYTata AalaI, navaI pairmaaNao AvatarlaI. taI kxaoNataI, AaiNa [itahasaacaI vaaTcaala paahtaa, malaa tyaatalao naomakox kxaya Baavatao AaiNa kxaya naahI? hoca Aataa pahayacao Aaho.
          maanavaacyaa paRqvaIvarIla pa`vaoSaabaraobar {tkxaMtaIcaa [itahasa Jaalaa Kara, paNa hI pa`ik`xyaa hI pa`qamata: fxar maMd gataInao saur} haotaI. italaa gataI pa`apta JaalaI jaovha maaNasaanao TUlsa mhNajao htyaaro, Avajaaro tayaar kxrNyaacao kxsaba pa`apta kxr}na Gaotalao taovha. SaWtaIcao vaca_sva saMpaUna bauÔIcao vaca_sva saur} haoNyaacaI saur}vaata mhNajao ho kxsaba Aatmasaata kxrNao.
          maaNasaacaa [itahasa paaihlaa tar idsatao kxI tyaaMpaOkxI taIna-catauqaa_MSaapaoXaahI AiQak kxaL htyaaro banaivaNyaacao kxsaba vaRiÔMgata kxrNyaata, tasaoca saMGaSaWtaIcaa pairNaamakxarkx {payaaoga jagaNyaasaazI kxrNyaataca paDlaa Aaho. yaaca kxaLata maaNasaacaa pa`saar jagaataIla inarinarawËa BaagaaMmaQyao Jaalaa Asao maanaNyaata yaotao. kxahI Saas~a&aaMcyaa matao maanavaI {tk`xaMtaIcao koMxd` ho ekxca Asaavao AaiNa itaqaUna maanava jagaBar pasarlaa. kxahI mhNataata ASaI koMxd`o caar ikMxvaa paaca AsaavaIta AaiNa taoqaUna maanava javaLcyaa pa`doSaaMta sqalaaMtarIta Jaalaa Asaavaa. maaJaa kxla maanavaI {tk`xaMtaIcaI koMxd`o Anaok AsaavaIta yaakDo Jaukxtao. yaasaMbaMQaata KaUpa {tKanana, saMSaaoQana Jaalao Aaho, Aaif`xkoxta. tao kxrNaa%yaa Saas~a&aaMcyaa matao maanavaI {tkxaMtaI saraovarakxazI, nadIkxazI, bahuivaQa vanaspataIMnaI naTlaolyaa pa`doSaata, samaSaItaaoYNa tapamaanaata JaalaI. paNa Asaa AnaukUxla pa`doSa saaoDUna maaNasaalaa [tar pa`doSaata jaaNyaacaI garja kxaxinamaa_Na JaalaI AsaavaI! ho Saas~a&a mhNataata, kxI yaa AnaukUxla pa`doSaata laaokxsaMKyaa vaaZlaI, Anna pauronaasao Jaalao AaiNa maaNasaalaa dusa%yaa pa`doSaaMcaa SaaoQa GaoNao pa`apta Jaalao. yaa {laT malaa vaaTtao kxI iSakxar AaiNa kMxdmauLo jamavaUna gaujaraNa kxrNaa%yaa jyaa TaowËa  Asataata, tyaata laaokxsaMKyaa hI kxQaIca Dao[_jaD haota naahI. laaoksaMKyaa vaaZUna {palabQa Annaavar taaNa paDU nayao mhNaUna yaa TaowËa dXa Asataata. ervaI, raogara[_, AapasaataIla saMGaYa_ tasaoca maaMsa BaXakx pa`aNyaaMnaa taaoMD doNao yaaMmauLo laaokxsaMKyaa kxmaI haoNyaacaI SaWyataaca jaasta. kxmaI ikMxvaa vaanarsadRSya pa`aNyaapaasaUna maaNasaacaI {tpa$aI JaalaI, Asao samajalao tar Aaja ikMxvaa najaIkxcyaa BaUtakxaLata Asao pa`aNaI ijaqao ijaqao saapaDtaata, itaqao itaqao maanavaI {tpa$aI haoNao saMBavatao. AgadI AilakxDcyaa kxaLapaya_Mta pa`vaasa hI gaaoYT koxvaZI KaDtar haotaI, ho paaihlao kxI Aaidmaanava svaKauSaInao yaa maagaa_caa AvalaMba kxr}na fxar maaozI AMtaro AaolaaMDIla hI gaaoYT ASaWya kxaoTItalaI vaaTtao.
          AilakxDcyaa Saas~a&aaMnaI janaukxaMcaI (DNA) tapaasaNaI kxr}na yaa pa`Snaacaa inaNa_ya laavaNËacaa pa`yatna koxlaa Aaho paNa samaaQaanakxark Asao ekx {$ar tyaaMcyaahI hataIM laagalaolao naahI.gaolyaa dha hjaar vaYaa_Mta payaa_varNaata kxsao badla Jaalao ho Aataa kxLUna caukxlao Aaho. eKaaÒa kxiTbaMQaata fxar pa`itakUxla Asao payaa_varNa tayaar Jaalyaasa maanavaalaa sqalaaMtar kxrNao Baaga paDlao AsaNaar.
maa~a saumaaro paaca laaKa vaYaa_MpaUvaI_ Aaidmaanavaacyaa hataaMta AaNaKaI ekx “htyaar” Aalao kxI jyaacyaamauLo  maanavaacaa sava_~a pa`saar haoNyaasa madta JaalaI Asaola. ho “htyaar” mhNajao “Aaga”. Aaga laagaUna maaozËa pa`maaNaavar jaMgalao jaaLlyaacao pauravao Aaif`xko ta imaLtaata. yaa AagaI AaidmaanavaaMnaI jaMgalao hTivaNyaasaazI laavalyaa Asaavyaata, Asaa Saas~a&aaMcaa haora Aaho. jaMgalao hTvaUna maaokxwËa koxlaolyaa pa`doSaata Anna SaaoQaNao va imaLivaNao AaiNa tyaalaa maarNyaasa Tpalaolyaa vanya pa`aNyaaMpaasaUna bacaava kxrNao, Aaidmaanavaalaa kxdaicata\ saaopao gaolao Asaavao. JauDupao, gavatao yaaMcaI ivaivaQatahI yaamauLo vaaZlaI AaiNa tyaavar gaujaraNa kxrNaaro taRNaBaXakx pa`aNaI inamaa_Na Jaalao, tyaaMcaIhI ivaivaQataa vaaZlaI. yaaMtalaoca kaahI pa`aNaI pauZo “maaNasaaLlao” AaiNa tyaaMnaa maaNaUsa paLU laagalaa.
          pa`aNaI maaNasaaLivaNËacaI ikxmayaa maaNasaanao bahuQaa, tao BaTko jaIvana jagata Asataanaa, fxLo, kMxdmauLo AaiNa qaaoDI fxar iSakxar yaaMvar gaujaraNa kxrIta Asataanaaca saaQya koxlaI AsaavaI. yaapauZcaa Tppaa mhNajao vanaspataI maaNasaaLivaNao. tyaasaazI AaNaKaI KaUpa kxaL jaavaa laagalaa. vanaspataIMmaQyaohI fxLo doNaarI JaaDo pa`qama maaNasaaLlaI, mhNajao maaNaUsa tyaaMcaI laagavaD kxrNËasa iSakxlaa AaiNa tyaanaMtar, mhNajao gaolyaa fxWta dha baara hjaar vaYaa_Mta maaNasaaLlaI gavatao. SaotaI Aaho yaa maaNasaaLlaolyaa gavataaMvarca AaQaarIta. AaiNa ho GaDlao paRqvaIcyaa AayauYyaata AgadI AilakxDo! SaWtaIpaoXaa bauÔI EaoYz ho maaNasaanao paunha ekxda daKavaUna idlao AaiNa maaNasaacaa [itahasa mhNajao idvasaoMidvasa bauÔIcao EaoYztva isaÔ kxrNaa%yaa GaTnaaMcaI gadI_ Asao mhNaNyaasaarKaI pairisqataI inamaa_Na JaalaI.
          SaotaIlaa [itahasa Aaho koxvaL 10-12 hjaar vaYaa_Mcaa. tyaaAaQaI ikxtyaokx laaKa vaYao_ maaNaUsa BaTkox jaIvanaca jagata haotaa. yaa kxaLata jasao tyaacao htyaaro Avajaaro banaivaNyaacao kxsaba vaaZlao, tasao AagaISaI tyaacaI jaana pahcaana vaaZta gaolaI AsaNaar. kxccyaa maaMsaapaoXaa Baajalaolao maaMsa AiQakx r}cakxr Asatao, pacaNyaasa saaopao Asatao, ho AagaInaoca Aaidmaanavaalaa iSakxivalao AsaNaar. {ba doNao, maMdsaa pa`kxaSa doNao, ho AagaIcao dOnaMidna {payaaoga Aahota, ho tyaanao jaaNalao AsaNaar! ranaTI gavataaMcyaa ibayaaMpaasaUna r}cakxr gaaoYTI tayaar kxrNao, tyaa BaajaUna pacanayaaogya banaivaNao hI kxsabao AagaISaI jaanapahcaana vaaZlyaanaMtarca SaWya Aahota. Anna iSajaivaNyaacaI kxlaa iSakxlyaaiSavaaya SaotaI kxrNyaalaa Aqa_ naahI. taovha SaotaIvar AaQaarIta samaajavyavasqaa, isqar jaIvana yaa gaaoYTI AilakxDcyaa kxaLataIla Asalyaa tarI tyaapaUvaI_ Anaok AavaSyak ASaI kxsabao maaNasaanao Aatmasaata koxlaI AsaNaar.
SaotaIpaUvaI_cyaa pa`dIGa_ kxalaKaMData hI jaI “pa`gataI” maaNasaanao saaQyao koxlaI, itacao yaaogya maaojamaapa kxaoNaI [itahasakxaranao koxlaolao idsata naahI.
SaotaIbaraobarca maaNaUsa isqar jaIvana jagaU laagalaa AaiNa tyaamauLo tyaacaI &aanasaMpada vaaZNyaasa madta JaalaI. pa`yaaogaavar AaQaarIta Saas~ao AaiNa tak_xSaas~aavar AaQaarIta vaaD\.maya yaa isqar jaIvanaamauLoca SaWya Jaalao. paNa SaotaIcaa pa`mauKa fxayada mhNajao SaotaItaUna maaNasaalaa imaLalaolao AitairWta {tpaadna (surplus) yaa AitairWta {tpaadnaamauLoca SaWtaIpaoXaa bauÔI EaoYz Asao inaiva_vaadpaNao mhNaNao Aataa durapasta Jaalao! Asao kxa?
          tar SaotaImauLo isqar Jaalaolyaa maanavaI TaowËaMmaQyao Aataa SaotakxrI AaiNa [tar Asao gaT inamaa_Na Jaalao. Saotakx%yaanao Qaanya ipakxvaayacao AaiNa [taraMnaI tao ipakxivaNyaasa tyaalaa madta kxrayacaI, AaiNa tyaacyaa maaobadlyaata tyaacyaakxDUna Qaanya imaLvaayacao ASaI sava_saaQaarNa vyavasqaa zrlaI AsaavaI. maa~a ho AitairWta {tpaadna samaajaataIla inarinarawËa GaTkxaMnaa kxaoNatyaa pa`maaNaata vaaTUna Òayacao, tyaamaQyao Aga`k`xma kxaoNaalaa Òayacaa, ho pa`Sna samaaQaanakxarkxrItyaa saaoDivaNao maaNasaacyaa bauÔIlaa tyaavaoLolaaca kxaya paNa Aajacyaa AaQauinakx yaugaatahI saaQya Jaalaolao idsata naahI. yaasaazI bauÔIlaa SaWtaIcaI jaaoD doNyaacaI AavaSyakxtaa tyaa kxaLata jaSaI BaasalaI AsaNaar, taSaIca taI AajahI Baasata Aaho. maanavaI samaajaata bauÔIcao EaoYztva kxQaIca inaiva_vaadpaNao isaÔ Jaalaolao naahI. {laT AitairWta {tpaadnaacyaa SaWyataolaa jaIvanaavaSyak vastaUMcyaa TMcaa[_caI jaaoD idlaI kxI SaWtaIcaa Ayaaogya {payaaoga haoNyaacaI SaWyataa duNaavaU laagatao.
maaNasaanao SaotaI kxr}na AitairWta {tpaadna imaLivalao Karo, paNa tyaacavaoLI tyaacyaa laXaata Aalao AsaNaar, kxI Asao {tpanna doNaarI jamaIna mayaa_idta Asatao. tasaoca yaa SaotaIlaa laagaNaaro paaNaIhI mayaa_idta Asatao AaiNa jaimanaIcaI sauipakxtaa iTkxvaUna QarNyaasaazI jyaa gaaoYTI AavaSyakx Asataata, tyaahI mayaa_idta Asataata. AitairWta {tpaadnaabaraobarca tao imaLivaNyaasaazI AaiNa iTkxivaNyaasaazI laagaNaa%yaa saaQanaaMcaI kxmatartaa yaa gaaoYTIlaahI maanavaI samaajaaMnaa taovhapaasaUna taaoMD Òavao laagalao Aaho.
yaapaUvaI_, BaTWyaa jaIvanaata maaNasaalaa TMcaa[_ maahIta navhtaI Asao naahI. sqalaaMtar ha tyaavar {paaya haotaa. kxarNa laaokxsaMKyaocyaa maanaanao jaimanaIcao Xao~a Amaapa haotao. qaaoDIfxar iSakxar (maaNasaacyaa Annaata vaaTa saumaaro vaIsa TWkox) AaiNa fxLo, kMxdmauLo, ibayaa, vagaOro jamaivaNao ho kxaoNatyaahI pa`kxarcyaa jaimanaIvar SaWya haotao, ho maaNaUsa AnauBavaanao iSakxlaolaa haotaa. SaotaImauLo maa~a maaNaUsa jaimanaIcyaa ekxa taukxDËaSaI jaKaDlaa gaolaa AaiNa kxaozohI BaTkUna Anna imaLivaNyaacao tyaacao svaataM~ya saMpalao. AaQauinakx [itahasakxar maaNasaacyaa BaTWyaa jaIvanakxaLasa maanavaI jaIvanaatalao sauvaNa_yauga samajataata. maga ho sauvaNa_yauga, ha AtyaMta AanaMdacaa va samaaQaanaacaa kxaL, hI jaIvanaSaOlaI saaoDUna AitairWta {tpaadnaacyaa laaoBaanao maaNasaanao ekxa jaimanaIcyaa taukxDËalaa jaKaDUna Gaotalao, hI pa`gataI kxa AQaaogataI, ha maanavaI bauÔIcaa ivajaya kxa parajaya? kxarNa maanavaI samaajaataIla sava_ du:Kao, ivaYamataa, jaulauma, saMGaYa_ AaiNa ihMsaa, Atyaacaar yaaMcaa {gama isqar jaIvanaSaOlaIta idsataao. AitairWta {tpaadnaabaraobarca AitairWta laaokxsaMKyaa hI DaokoxduKaIhI taovhapaasaUnaca kxayamacaI BaoDsaavaU laagalaI maaNasaalaa!
SaotaIlaa, kxahI laoKakxaMnaI maanavaanao inasagaa_ ivar}Ô koxlaolaa paihlaa maaoza gaunha, Asao mhTlao Aaho. payaa_varNaIyadRYTËa paaihlao tar tao Karoca Aaho. SaotaIcao payaa_varNaIya svar}pa sahsaa samaajaapauZo saaMigatalao jaata naahI, AByaasak`xmaata tao samaaivaYT naahI. tyaamauLo SaotaI AaiNa SaotakxrI yaaMcyaa baabata Anaok gaOrsamaja samaajaata r}jalaolao idsataata. SaotakxrI jaovha jaimanaIcyaa taukxDËavar paIk laavataao tyaavaoLI taao Asao zrivataao kxI yaa taukxDËavar paDNaarI sava_ saUya_SaWtaI koxvaL yaaca ipakxasaazI vaaparlaI jaa[_la. [tar vanaspataIMnaa taI imaLNaar naahI. hI gaaoYT inasagaa_cyaa ivar}Ôca Aaho. inasagaa_ta ASaI gaaoYT jaovha GaDtao, taovha tyaa vanaspataIlaa AsaMKya  Sa~aU inamaa_Na haotaata, kxI jao tyaa vanaspataIcaI vaaZ raoKataata. Saotakx%yaalaahI yaa Sa~aUMnaa satata taaoMD Òavaoca laagatao. tyaamauLo SaotaIta, na BaTkxtaa, ekxaca jaagaI isqar rahUna {tpanna imaLta Asalao tarI tao SaaSvata nasatao. maaozËa pa`maaNaata, ivastaRta Xao~aavar koxlaolyaa SaotaIlaa Sa~aUhI maaozËa pa`maaNaata inamaa_Na haota Asalyaanao taI yaSasvaI zrta naahI.
SaotaInao maataIvar haoNaaro pairNaama laXaata Gaotalao tar {YNa kxiTbaMQaata SaotaI yaSasvaI haoNyaacaI SaWyataa duravatao. [qao paa{]sa maaosamaI Asalyaanao jamaIna {GaDI paDlaI kxI taI Aaola gamaavatao, kxaorDI paDlyaanao itacaI QaUpa haotao AaiNa paaNyaacyaa kxmatartaomauLo BarGaaosa {tpanna SaotaItaUna imaLNao durapasta haotao. yaa {laT samaSaItaaoYNa kxiTbaMQaata baarmaahI paa{]sa, saKaaola jamaIna, italaa drvaYaI_ ihvaawËata imaLNaarI ivaEaaMtaI yaaMmauLo SaotaIMtaUna BarGaaosa {tpanna imaLNyaacaI SaWyataa AiQak. Baarta SaotaIpa`Qaana doSa Aaho mhNajao BaartataIla pairisqataI SaotaIlaa AtyaMta AnaukUxla Aaho, Asao navho tar BaartaatalaI janataa SaotaIiSavaaya dusara QaMda kxrIta naahI hI satyaisqataI Aaho Asaa haotaao.
SaotaIcao jaOvaivaivaQataovar haoNaaro pairNaama pa`qamata: laXaata yaoNyaa[takox SaotaIcao svar}pa vyaapakx Jaalao navhtao. tarI SaotaIsaazI jaMgala taaoDUna jamaIna ijaqao imaLvaavaI laagalaI, itaqao vanya pa`aNaI - paXaI doSaaoQaDIlaa laagalyaacao laaokxaMnaI AnauBaivalao haotao. paNa yaaMi~akx SaotaIcaa {d\Bava haoNyaaAaQaI ha pa`Sna evaZa taIva` navhtaa.
SaotaImauLo sapaM$aIcao svar}pahI badlalao. Aataapaya_Mta saMpa$aI hI saaonao, r}pao, rtnao AaiNa javaahIr, daiganao AaiNa jaDavaacao kxapaD ASaa gaaoYTIta vyaWta haota Asao. ASaI saMpa$aI imaLivaNyaata svakxYTapaoXaa naSaIba AaiNa SaWtaI yaaMcaaca vaaTa jaasta Asao. tyaamauLo samaajaataIla maatabar laaokxca ASaa saMpa$aIcaa saaza kxr} Sakxta. Aata maa~a svakxYTanao SaotaItalao AitairWta {tpaadna pa`apta haotao hI jaaNaIva samaajaalaa JaalaI.  {tpanna pa`qamata: samaajaataIla dovataolaa, maMidralaa Apa_Na koxlao jaata Asaavao va itaqaUna tao maMidracyaa paujaa%yaakxDo jaata Asaavao. pauZo rajaanao Saotasaara GaoNyaacaI paÔta paDlaI AaiNa yaa {tpannaacaa zraivakx vaaTa rajasa$aokxDo jaa{] laagalaa. {rlaolaa SaoYa baajaarpaozota ivak`xIlaa Aalaa AaiNa jaIvanaavaSyakx vastaUcaa baajaarpaozota pa`qamaca pa`vaoSa Jaalaa. ho AitairWta {tpaadna kxahI kxaL saazta jaa{] Sakxta Asalyaanao tao ekxa izkxaNaahUna dusa%yaa izkxaNaI paazivaNao SaWya Jaalao AaiNa baajaarpaozocaI vyaaptaI vaaZlaI.
AitairWta {tpaadnaacao maUL jaimanaIta Asalyaanao jamaIna taabyaata GaoNyaasa, itacyaa maalakxIhWkxasa Balataoca mah$va pa`apta Jaalao. samaajaatalyaa ivaSaoYa huSaar AaiNa taakxdvaana\ laaokxaMnaI jaastaIta jaasta jaimanaIvar Aapalaa maalakxI hWk pa`sqaaipata kxrNyaata Qanyataa maanalaI. samaajarcanaa jaimanaIcyaa maalakxIBaaovataI ifxrNaarI ASaI Aistatvaata AalaI. ivastaINa_ jaimanaIvar maalakxI saaMgaNaaro sardar AaiNa tyaaMcaa Aga`NaI rajaa, pa`tyaXa jamaIna kxsaNaaro mhNajao kuxLo AaiNa yaa savaa_Mnaa AavaSyakx sauivaQaa paurivaNaaro kxaragaIr. ASaI samaajavyavasqaa mauKyata: zrlaI. yaaiSavaaya maMidro AaiNa tyaaMcao paujaarI, saonaapataI tyaaMcao saOnya ho sauÔa samaajaacao AivaBaajya GaTkx zrlao. laaokxsaMKyaa AaiNa AitairWta {tpaadna yaaMcaI saaMgaD GaalaNao AvaGaD Aaho. savaa_Mcyaa pa`aqaimakx garjaa paurivaNyaacaIhI kuxvata yaa {tpaadnaata naahI, ho {tpaadna baoBarMvaSaacao AaiNa ASaaSvata Aaho, ho sauÔa samaajaacyaa laXaata Aalao.
jaimanaIcaI saupaIkxtaa mayaa_idta Asalyaanao koxvaL jaimanaIvar kxama kxrNaa%yaaMcaI saMKyaa vaaZvaUna {tpaadna vaaZivata yaota naahI, ho laXaata Aalao. jaimanaIvar kxama kxrNaa%yaaMcaI saMKyaa vaaZivata raihlao, tar ekx ibaMdU Asaa yaotaao kxI itaqaUna pauZo pa`tyaokx navaIna kxamagaar kxmaI - kxmaI {tpaadna do{] laagataao. taovha yaa ibaMdUpailakxDo kxamagaaraMcaI saMKyaa navho tar [tar gaaoYTI vaaZivaNao yaaogya zrtao. yaa [tar gaaoYTI mhNajao jaimanaIcao Xao~afxL vaaZivaNao, Katao, SaaSvata paaNaI yaaMcaI vyavasqaa kxrNao, ikxDIpaasaUna jamaIna saMriXata kxrNao vagaOro.
inavvaL kxamagaar saMKyaa vaaZvaUna jaimanaItaUna imaLNaaro AitairWta {tpaadna vaaZivataa yaota naahI ho kxLNao hIca AaQauinakx Aqa_Saas~aacaI saur}vaata haoya. Aqaa_taca SaotaIlaa paUrkx ASaa {tpaadkx vyavasaayaaMcaI samaajaalaa garja inamaa_Na JaalaI. Asao vyavasaaya mhNajao vyaapaar, ivaSaoYata: pardoSaaMSaI vyaapaar, navyaa KaaNaI SaaoQaUna maUlyavaana QaataUMcaa paurivaza vaaZivaNao, AaiNa naaOkxanayanaaÓaro navao pa`doSa navyaa saImaa SaaoQaUna kxaZNao.
paMQaravyaa, saaoLavyaa Satakxata yauraopaata baayabala AaiNa caca_caa samaajamanaavarIla pagaDa kxmaI Jaalaa, tasaoca BaaOitakx Xao~aata jao vyaapaarI, kxaragaIraMcao saMGa haotao, tyaaMcao sava_saamanya vyaWtaIvarIla vaca_sva, inayaM~aNa kxmaI Jaalao; mhNajaoca vaOyaiWtakx huSaarI, caaOkxsa bauÔI, pa`yatna, mahtvaakxaMXaa, ivaijagaIYau vaR$aI yaaMnaa mahtva pa`apta Jaalao. yaaca saumaarasa samaud`avar saMcaar kxrNaa%yaa baaoTI baaMQaNyaacao taM~a sauQaarlao, haokxayaM~a pa`caarata Aalao AaiNa naaOkxanayana saukxr Jaalao. tyaamauLo yauraopaataIla mahtvaakxaMXaI vyaWtaIMnaI ekx~a yao{]na, kMxpanyaa sqaapana kxr}na naaOkxanayanaaÓaro navaI KaMDo SaaoQalaI, navaIna inasaga_saMpa$aIcao s~aaota maahIta kxr}na Gaotalao, AaiNa pardoSasqa vyaapaaraÓaro ga`Ikx, Arba ASaa saMskRxtaIMSaI saMbaMQa vaaZvaUna navaIna &aana Aatmasaata koxlao. inasagaa_kxDo inarawËa, caaOkxsa va Baodk dRYTInao paahNyaasa saur}vaata hao{]na inasaga_ inarIXaNaavar AaQaarIta Saas~ao {dyaasa yao{] laagalaI.
AVDma ismaqanao Aqa_Saas~a ilaihtaanaa jaao maaNaUsa tyaacyaa koxMd`sqaanaI kxilpalaa Aaho, taao yauraopaataIla badlatyaa pairisqataIcao pa`taIkx Aaho. taao {$ama iSaXaNa Gaotalaolaa Aaho. mahtvaakxaMXaI, svata:cyaa pa`yatnaaMbaÕla AatmaivaSvaasa AsaNaara Aaho, taao caair~yavaana Aaho. tyaacyaavarIla saamaaijakx jabaabadarIcaI jaaNaIva Asalaolaa Aaho. mhNajaoca taao jaovha inarinarawËa payaa_yaaMcaI tapasaNaI kxr}na AapalaI inavaD zrvaIla AaiNa maagaNaI naaoMdvaIla, taI ASaI Asaola kxI saamaaijakx ihtahI tyaamauLo saaQalao jaa[_la, tyaacaa vaOyaiWtakx svaaqa_hI saaQalaa jaa[_la. paNa tyaamauLo saava_jainakx ihtaasa baaQaa yaoNaar naahI.
Asao AsaMKya, caair~yavaana {paBaaoWtao (consumers) baajaarpaozota AapalaI maagaNaI naaoMdivataIla, tyaavaoLI tyaa {paBaaogaacao svar}pa samaajaihta saaQaNaaroca Asaola AaiNa vaOyaiWtakx svaaqa_ saaQata saaQataa samaajaihtahI saaQalao jaa[_la. baajaarpaozota ikMxmataI ASaa zrtaIla kxI jyaamauLo {paBaaoWtao AaiNa paurvazadar yaa daoGaaMcaahI fxayada hao[_la.
Aqa_Saas~aacaa {d\Bava haoNyaasa yauraopaataIla ivaiSaYT pairisqataI kxarNaIBaUta haotaI, ho yaavar}na laXaata yao[_la. sarMjaamaSaahIcaa Asta AaiNa kxarKaanadarIcaa {gama yaaMmaQalaa saMiQakxala yaata Aqa_Saas~aacaa {dya Jaalaa. Baarta - caIna yaa paUvao_kxDIla raYT^aMmaQyao pairisqataI maa~a ekxdmaca inaraLI haotaI. rajakxIya AsqaOyaa_mauLo maQyavataI_ sa$aa jarI badlataI raihlaI tarI KaoDËaMcaI vyavasqaa hI svataM~a rahU Sakxta haotaI. {$ar Baartaata vatanao AaiNa jaimanadarI yaaMcaa pagaDa jaasta haotaa AaiNa tyaacao svar}pa yauraopaIya sarMjaamaSaahIcyaa javaLpaasa paaohaocata haotao. paNa diXaNaota jaimanaIcaI maalakxI pa`aya: Saotakx%yaakxDo raihlaI AaiNa maQyavataI_ sa$aonao Saotasaara gaaoLa kxrNao ha {tpannaacaa pa`mauKa maaga_ mhNaUna svaIkxarlaa. {$arota maQyavataI_ sa$aa kxr jaimanadar, sardar - drkxdar yaaMcyaakxDUna gaaoLa kxrIta Asao AaiNa tao kxr Saotakx%yaakxDUna vasaUla kxrIta. Asao “dlaala” diXaNaota navhtao.
maugala sa$aopaUvaI_ {$arota jao mausalamaana saulataana hao{]na gaolao, tyaaMnaI ijaMkxlaolyaa pa`doSaataUna maaozËa saMKyaonao gaulaama gaaoLa koxlao. kxahI kxaL idllaIta gaulaamaaMcao baajaar haotao. yaaMpaOkxI kxahI pauZo inarinaraLI kxaOSalyao iSakxlao, kxaragaIr Jaalao AaiNa tyaaMnaI gaulaamaItaUna mauWtataa kxr}na GaotalaI. yaa kxaragaIraMcaohI yauraopapa`maaNao saMGa haotao; AaiNa ho saMGa Aapalyaa sadsyaaMcaI vata_NaUkx, tyaaMcao {Òaoga va QaMdo inayaMi~ata kxrItaAsata.
yaa iSavaaya saMpaUNa_ ihMdU samaaja ha inarinarawËa jaatIMmaQyao ivaBaagalaa gaolaa haotaa. pa`tyaokx jaataIMcao Aapalyaa sadsyaaMivaYayaI inayama haotao, rItaI haotyaa, baMQanao haotaI. kxahI jaataIMmaQyao raoTIbaoTI vyavahar haota Asao. kxahIMmaQyao taao haota nasao. ekUxNa kxaya paMQaravyaa - saaoLavyaa Satakxata jasaa vyaWtaI koMxd`Ita samaaja yauraopaata inarinarawËa raYT^aMta kxmaI - AiQakx pa`maaNaata {dyaasa Aalaa, tasaa taao caIna - Baarta yaa paaOvaa_tya doSaata {dyaasa Aalaa naahI. vyaWtaI hI Anaok samaaja baMQanaata jaKaDlaolaI raihlaI.
Aqa_Saas~aacyaa dRYTIkxaonaataUna yaakxDo paaihlao tar tyaacao fxayado-taaoTo laXaata yaotaata. Aqa_Saas~aacao ekx mahtvaacao gaRhItakx mhNajao maanavaacyaa garjaa, maagaNyaa AnaMta AsaU Sakxtaata paNa saaQanasaMpa$aI maa~a mayaa_idta Asalyaanao kxaoNatyaa garjaa paUNa_ kxrayacyaa AaiNa kxaoNatyaa naahI, ho satata maaNasaalaa zrvaavao laagatao. Aqa_Saas~aacyaa {dyaacyaa kxaLI [MglaMDmaQyao maanavaI {ÒaogaaMcao Qa`uvaIkxrNa Jaalao haotao. enaWlaaojar mauvhmaoMTmauLo jaimanaIcao lahana taukxDo AsaNaaro SaotakxrI layaalaa gaolao AaiNa SaotaIcao baajaarIkxrNa Jaalao. kxarKaanadarIcaa {dya hao{]na maalakx AaiNa majaUr Asao daona vaga_ inamaa_Na Jaalao.  saMpa$aIcao vaaTpa baDo SaotakxrI (laaVD_sa\) AaiNa tyaaMcyaa Saotaavar kxama kxrNaaro majaUr AaiNa kxarKaanadar maalakx va tyaacao majaUr yaa caar vagaa_ta mauKyata: haoNaar ho zr}na gaolao. yaa caar vagaa_MmaQyao saMpa$aIcyaa vaaTpaabaabata saMGaYa_ rahNaar ho idsata AsaUnasauÔa Aqa_Saas~aanao gaRhIta Qarlao kxI yaa caar vagaa_MmaQyao saMpa$aIcao vaaTpa savaa_Mnaa samaaQaanakxarkx vaaTola Asaoca rahIla. yaacaaca Aqa_ Asaa kxI saaQanasaMpa$aI mayaa_idta AsalaI tarI yaa caarhI vagaa_Mcyaa iKaSaata Aapalyaa inadana pa`aqaimakx garjaa paurivaNyaa[takox paOsao AsataIla AaiNa tyaaÓaro baajaarpaoz pa`qama samaajaacyaa pa`aqaimakx garjaa paurvaIla AaiNa naMtarca EaImaMtaaMcyaa garjaa paurivaNyaacyaa maagao laagaola. pa`tyaXaata maa~a sava_ saamaanyaaMcyaa iKaSaata pa`aqaimakx garjaa paurivaNyaa[takxahI paOsaa na Aalyaanao baajaarpaozota fxWta EaImaMtaaMcyaaca maagaNyaa vyaWta hao{] laagalyaa AaiNa paurivalyaa gaolyaa. ASaa pairisqataIta sava_saamaanyaaMnaa ekx tar sarkxarI madtaIvar ivasaMbaavao laagalao ikxMvaa pardoSaata sqalaaMtar tarI kxravao laagalao. paOSaacaI {palabQataa ha [qao inaNaa_yakx GaTkx zrlaa. Aqa_Saas~a tyaamauLoca paOSaavar AaQaarIta Aqa_vyavasqaa (monetory economy) gaRhIta Qartao.
Baarta - caIna saarKyaa doSaaMta maa~a Aqa_vyavasqaa paOSaaBaaovataI koxMd`IBaUta haoNyaasa ekxaoiNasaavyaa Satakacaa {$araQa_ {jaDavaa laagalaa. tyaaAaQaI yaa doSaaMta vastaUMcaI dovaaNa GaovaaNa (barter economy ) hI mahtvaacaI haotaI. maanavaI {pak`xmaaMcao Qa`uvaIkxrNa Jaalaolao navhtao. sava_saamaanya janataocaa SaotaI ha jarI mauKya {pak`xma Asalaa tarI pa`aqaimakx garjaa BaagaivaNyaasaazI inarinaraLI jaMgalao (GanadaT kxaYzvanao) JauDupaI gavataaL pa`doSa, naÒa AaiNa jalamaya BaUmaI yaaMcaa {payaaoga BarpaUr koxlaa jaata Asao. saaQanasaMpa$aIcao Asao Anaok GaTkx haotao. ivaiSaYT pa`doSaata yaaMtalaa pa`tyaokx GaTkx mayaa_idta pa`maaNaata {palabQa Asalaa tarI sava_saamaanyaaMnaa tyaaMtaUna inavaD kxrNyaasa vaava maaoza haotaa. baajaarataIla ikMxmata hI eKaaÒa vastaUcyaa mayaa_idta paurvazËavarca AvalaMbaUna navhtaI, tar mayaa_idta saaza Asalaolyaa vastaUlaa payaa_ya ikxtaI {palabQa Aahota, tyaaMcaI ga`ahkx kxaoNatyaa pa`maaNaata inavaD kxrNaar yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna AsaNaar ho {GaD Aaho. mhNajaoca [qao kxahI zraivakx gaaoYTIMcaa paurvaza kxrNaarI koMxid`BaUta baajaarpaoz ( Centralized market) fxWta naagarI Baagaata SaWya Aaho. Anya~a gaava paataLIvar, sqaainakx vastaUMcaI dovaaNaGaovaaNa kxrNaa%yaa AsaMKya baajaarpaoza {Byaa rahNao Apairhaya_ zrtao. AaiNa naomakxI ASaIca pairisqataI Baartaata iba`iTSa sa$aa pa`sqaaipata haoNyaapaUvaI_ haotaI AaiNa AajahI kxahI BaagaMata AjaUnahI iTkUxna Aaho. paOSaapaoXaa ASaa vyavasqaota jaOvaivaivaQataolaa mahtva Aaho.
garIba Ea`ImaMta, ivaSaoYata: garIbaIcao maUlyamaapana koxvaL paOSaata ASaa vyavasqaomaQyao kxrNao baraobar naahI. tar maaNasaalaa tyaacyaa pa`aqaimakx garjaa BaagaivaNyaasaazI payaa_yaI saaQanasaMpa$aI (saMsaaQanao, resources) ikxtapata {palabQa Aaho. maaNaUsa yaa saMsaaQanaaMcaa pa`tyaXaata ikxtapata {paBaaoga Gaotaao, yaa gaaoYTI maUlyamaapanaata mahtvaacyaa Aahota. jaOvaivaivaQataocao vaOpaulya Asalaolyaa Baarta - caIna saarKyaa doSaataIla Aqa_vyavasqaocao yaaogya maUlyamaapana yauraopaIya Aqa_Saas~aaÓaro haoNaar naahI. tyaalaa vaogaLoca inakxYa hvaota.
BaartaataIla pairisqataIlaa yaaogya hao[_la Asao Aqa_Saas~a AnaMta maagaNyaa AaiNa mayaa_idta saMsaaQanao yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna AsaNyaapaoXaa samaajaanao vyaWtaIvar baMQanao TakUxna tyaataUna inamaa_Na Jaalaolyaa mayaa_idta maagaNyaa AaiNa mayaa_idta paurvaza paNa jaOvaivaivaQataomauLo inarinaraLo payaa_ya paurivaNaarI saMsaaQanao yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna Asaola. [qao AsaMKya lahana baajaarpaoza AsataIla AaiNa ikMxmataI zrtaIla tyaa yaa AsaMKya baajaarpaozaMtaIla dLNavaLNa, Aavakx - jaavakx ikxtaI saulaBa Aaho, yaaMvar.
yauraopaIya Aqa_Saas~aata vyaiWtasvaataM~yaalaa mahtva Aaho. tyaacao saupairNaama Aahota, tasao duYpairNaamahI najarosa Aalao Aahota. mauKyata: vyaWtaIcaI inavaD naohmaIca yaaogya Asaola Asao naahI, taI ikxtyaokxda Avaastava (Irrational) AsaU Sakxtao, ho Qyaanaata Aalao Aaho. tyaacapa`maaNao yauraopaIya Aqa_Saas~aata kxaoNatyaa vastaMUcao {tpaadna koxlao jaatao, (Composition of production) yaalaa mahtva naahI, tyaacaI caaOkxSaI koxlaI jaata naahI. tyaamauLo vyaiWtakoMxid`ta Aqa_vyavasqaota pauYkxLda {tpaadnaacao svar}pa samaajaivaGaatakx AsaU Sakxtao, ho sauÔa kxLUna caukxlaolao Aaho. DaV nairMdr isaMga yaaMnaI daKavaUna idlao Aaho kxI baajaarpaozota {palabQa vastaUMpaOkxI 70 TWko vastaMUta ivaYaarI GaTkx Aahota (Economics & The Crisis of Ecology 1978). rVcaola kxasa_nanao SaotaImaQyao ivaYaarI kxITkxnaaSakox vaaparlyaamauLo samaajaavar kxaoNatao Bayaanakx pairNaama haotaata, ho saaÒMta daKaivalao Aaho ( Silent Spring 1962). hrmana DalaI, Aayasa_, ehrilaca yaa Aqa_vao$yaaMnaI AajacaI {tpaadnao mauKyata: Kinaja taola, kxaoLsaa yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna Asalyaanao BaaOitakxSaas~aacyaa inayamaaMnausaar ( Laws of Thermodynamics) {tpaadnao tayaar kxrNyaasaazI laagaNaara Kaca_ ha naohmaIca {tpaadnao ivakUxna imaLNaa%yaa fxayaÒapaoXaa jaasta Asataao, mhNajaoca AaQauinakx {tpaadna ho mauLata taaoTËata jaaNaaro Aaho, ho hI daKavaUna idlao Aaho. tyaamauLo yauraopaIya Aqa_Saas~aalaa {tpaadna caalaU zovaNyaasaazI kxmaItakxmaI ikMxmataIta saMsaaQanao imaLtaIla, itaqaUna taI taabyaata GaoNao, ho Apairhaya_ Aaho. tyaamauLo pa`qama vasaahtavaadaÓaro AaiNa AilakxDo jaagaitakxIkxrNaacaa paurskxar kxr}na jagaBarataUna kxccaa maala imaLivaNao Apairhaya_ banalao Aaho.
tyaamauLo yauraopaIya Aqa_Saas~aata BaaMDvalaalaa mahtva Aaho AaiNa BaaMDvala AaiNa baL yaaMcaa {payaaoga kxr}na saMsaaQanao taabyaata zovaNyaacaa pa`yatna itaqao naohmaIca koxlaa jaatao. yaa {laT BaartaIya Aqa_Saas~aata BaaMDvalaI gauMtavaNaUkx hI saMsaaQanaaMcaa djaa_ vaaZivaNyaakxDo Kaca_ hao{]na {tpaadna vaaZ ikMxvaa jaOvaivaivaQataocaI {palabQataa vaaZivalaI jaatao. ekxIkxDo {tpaadnaataIla vaaZ hI saMKyaatmakx Aaho, tar dusarIkxDo taI gauNaatmakx Aaho.
Aqa_vyavasqaa jar KarMca jaOvaivaivaQataovar AaQaarIta Asaola saMsaaQanaaMcyaa dovaaNa - GaovaaNaIlaa mahtva yao[_la. mhNajaoca taI baaT_r [kxaVnaaVmaI Asaola. ivakoMxid`ta, lahana baajaarpoaza Asao itacao AaNaKaI ekx vaOiSaYTË Asaola. paOSaalaa, BaaMDvalaalaa fxar mahtva nasaola.
saMKyaatmakx vaaZ kxaya ikMxvaa gauNaatmakx vaaZ kxaya, taI saaQaNyaasaazI taM~a&aana yaa htyaaracaa (Tool)  {payaaoga kxravaa laagaola.saMKyaatmakx vaaZ kxrNyaasaazI jao taM~a&aana AvalaMbaivalao jaatao tyaacaa paayaa BaaOitakxSaas~a, AiBayaaMi~akxI AaiNa Kinaja {jaa_ yaaMcaa Aaho. jaOvaivaivaQataovar AaQaarlaolyaa Aqa_vyavasqaota saMsaaQanaaMcaa djaa_ va saMKyaa vaaZvaayacaI Jaalyaasa BaaOitakxSaas~aabaraobar jaOvaSaas~ao, janaukxSaas~a yaaMcaa {payaaoga kxravaa laagaola, AaiNa taM~a&aanahI payaa_varNa, sajaIvaaMcao inarIXaNa vagaOrovar AaQaarIta hao[_la.
caalaU Aqa_vyavasqaa (yauraopaIya) AaiNa BaartaasaazI yaaogya AsaNaarI vyavasqaa yaaMtaIla fxrk KaalaIla taWtyaavar}na spaYT hao[_la:

caalaU (yauraopaIya) Aqa_vyavasqaa

Baartaasa yaaogya Aqa_vyavasqaa
AadSa_ pairisqataI gaRhIta Qartao. {da.AadSa_ saMpa$aI vaaTpa, saamaaijakx ivaYamataa naahI. vaOyaiWtakx inavaD pauYkxLSaI ekxsaarKaI
{paBaaoWtyaacaI vaOiSaYTËo: inavaDIcao svaataM~ya, maa~a vyaWtaI hI kxaoNatyaatarI- QaMdovaa[_kx, saamaaijakx, Aaiqa_kx, Qaaima_kx samaUhacaI sadsya. itacaI inavaD tyaa sadsyatvaavar AvalaMbaUna
Apairhaya_paNao saMyauWta kuxTuMbapaÔtaIpaoXaa navara -baayakxaocaIo kuxTuMbapa
ÔtaI yaaogya samajatao
vyaWtaIcyaa garjaa tyaacyaa {tpannaavar, tasaoca tyaacyaa samaUh sadsyatvaavar AvalaMbaUna
taM~a&aana AaiNa Kainaja {jaa_ AavaSyakx. paurvaza satata vaaZtaa hvaa, BaaOitakxSaas~aaMcyaa inayamaaMkxDo dula_Xa.
AavaD AaiNa inavaD yaaMcao svaataM~ya paNa sadsyatvaamauLo tyaavar mayaa_da.
samaSaItaaoYNa AaiNa {YNa kxiTbaMQaataIla vaataavarNaacyaa fxrkxakxDo dula_Xa
vaOyaiWtakx maalakxI maanya. paNa saMsaaQanaaMcaa pa`tyaXa vaapar AaiNa ivainayaaoga samaajaacyaa AaiNa samaUhacyaa maanyataonao
ekxca pa`kxarcaI jaIvanaSaOlaI jaagaitakx paataLIvar AsaavaI, Asaa pa`yatna. taM~a&aana, Kainaja {jao_caa vaapar AaiNa AitairWta vastaMUcao {tpaadna tyaasaazI AavaSyakx
Aaiqa_kx vyavaharacaa paayaa mhNajao jaOvaiva&aana, jaOOvaBaar AaiNa jaOvaivaivaQataa, taM~a&aana navho. saMsaaQanao va naOsaiga_kx yaM~aNaa yaaMcaa djaa_ vaRiÔMgata kxrNyaasaazI saaQyaa taM~aacaa vaapar, tyaamauLo ivatarNa yaaogya.
vaOyaiWtakx svaataM~ya, svaaqa_, naFyaacaa hvyaasa yaaMsa Avaastava mahtva. saaMskRxitakx AaiNa saamaaijakx baMQanaaMnaa kxmaI laoKaNao
{pajaIivakxa mauKyata: inasaga_ AaiNa saMsaaQanao yaaMcaI kxaLjaI GaoNao, jaOvaivaivaQataocaI raKaNa va vaRÔI kxrNao yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna. Kainaja {jao_caa maafxkx vaapar fxWta inasaga_-saMsqaaMcaI dur}staI, paunavaa_par, paunar}jjaIvana yaasaazIca.
tyaamauLo Aaiqa_kx vaaZ mhNajao AMtaga_ta {tpaadna satata vaaZNao, {tpannao AaiNa nafxa satata vaaZNao yaa gaaoYTI AavaSyakx
{pajaIivakoxcao inamaa_Na, inasaga_ va inasagaa_cyaa sauivaQaa yaaMcao paunar}jjaIvana kxr}na. {Òaoga CaoTo AaiNa ivakoxMid`ta mauKyata: pa`aqaimakx garjaa paurivaNaaro. SaotajaimanaIcaI maalakxI vaOyaiWtakx, paNa SaotaI {tpaadnaaMcao inayaaojana gaavapaataLIvar AaiNa ivainayaaoga sahkxarI saMsqaaMmaaf_xta.
{tpaadna AaiNa {paBaaoga yaa daonhIMmaQyao jyaa vastaU, maala AMtaBaU_ta haotaao tyaaMcaI yaaogyataa AaiNa djaa_ yaaMkxDo dula_Xa
AitairWta  {tpaadnaacaa Aakxar sqaainakx garjaa va sqaainakx vaapar yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna. inayaa_taIvar navho
vaOyaiWtakx AavaD - inavaD svaaqa_, Aaiqa_kx vaaZ AaiNa {tpannaataIla vaaZ yaasaazI AinayaMi~ata baajaarpaoz AavaSyakx
Kainaja {ja_ocaa {payaaoga mauKyata: samaajaacyaa garjaa BaagaivaNyaasaazI. {da. ivaÒuta inaima_taI, saava_jainakx vaahtaUkx, pa`aqaimakx garjaa BaagaivaNyaasaazI laagaNaarI Avajaaro (Tools) AaiNa pa`aqaimakx tao {cca iSaXaNaasa caalanaa kxI jao iSaXaNa laaokxaMnaa inasaga_ivaYayakx kxsabao do[_la AaiNa inasagaa_cao saKaaola &aana haoNyaasa madta kxrIla
inasaga_ AaiNa tyaapaasaUna maaofxta imaLNaa%yaa sauivaQaaMkxDo dula_Xa AaiNa tyaaMcaI badla sahna kxrNyaacaI Xamataa Amaayaa_idta Asaa ivaSvaasa
vaOyaiWtakx AavaDI - inavaDIvar AaQaarIta, koMxid`BaUta Asaa Kainaja {jao_caa vaapar TaLNao AaiNa tyaaÓaro BaaOitakxSaas~aacyaa inayamaaMcyaa kxcaaTËata na saapaDNao
inasaga_ mhNajaoca vanaspataI va pa`aNaIsaRYTI AaiNa inasaga_ maaofxta paurivata Asalaolyaa sauivaQaa yaaMmaQyao maaNasaalaa AnaukUxla Asao badla GaDvaUna AaNaNyaacaI taM~a&aanaacaI Xamata Amayaa_d Aaho, ho gaRhItakx
rajakxIya sa$aocaa vaapar laaokxSaahI maagaa_nao. sarkxarcaI BaUimakxa va kxaya- mhNajao samaajaata inarinaraLI kxsabao inamaa_Na haotaIla Asao iSaXaNa doNao, yaaogya kxayaÒanvayao samaajaataIla inarinarawËa samaUhaMcyaa kxayaa_Mvar inayaM~aNa zovaNao, {tpaadna AaiNa ivatarNa yaaMmaQaUna saazobaajaI, TMcaa[_, maWtaodarI yaa gaaoYTI tayaar haota naahIta ho paahNao AaiNa naOsaiga_kx Aapa$aIMcao inavaarNa kxrNao
mauWta spaQaa_, sarkxarI inayaM~aNa nasalaolaI Aqa_vyavasqaa, doSaaMtaga_ta AaiNa AaMtarraYT^Iya ivaYamataa caalaUca rhata AsalaI, tyaamauLo inasaga_ AaiNa naOsaiga_kx sauivaQaa yaaMcaa naaSa haota Asalaa AaiNa {Òaoga kuxzo {Bao kxrayacao AaiNa naaokx%yaa kxSaa inamaa_Na haoNaar yaaMtaIla saMtaulana ibaGaDta raihlao tarI sarkxarnao tyaata hstaXaopa kxr} nayao Asaa Aaga`h
bacata AaiNa BaaMDvala saMcaya yaa gaaoYTI vaOyaiWtakx kxsaba, baaOiÔkx Xamataa AaiNa QaDaDI yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna. gauMtavaNaUkx SaoAr baajaaraÓaro naahI tar vyaavasaaiyakx va [tar samaUhaÓaro saMcaailata AaiNa tyaavar sarkxarcao laXa. vaOyaiWtakx maalakxIKaalaI AsaNaarI paNa AjaUnapaya_Mta vaaparata na AalaolaI saMsaaQanao yaaMpaasaUna BaaDo (Rent) pa`apta haota Asaola tar tyaavar kxr AaiNa tyaapaasaUna imaLNaaro {tpanna saamaaijakx {nnataIsaazI vaaparNao.
samaajaacaI rcanaa AaiNa kxayao_ caalaU rahNyaasaazI BaaMDvalaaSaahI ikMxvaa saamyavaad ho daonaca payaa_ya {palabQa Aahota, gaRhIta QarNao
inasaga_vyavasqaocaI maUlatatvao va tyaavar QaaorNao AaQaarNao AavaSyak
yaa Aaga`hamauLo [tar rcanaaMcaa ivacaar AnaavaSyakx AaiNa inaiYaÔ
laaokxsaMKyaa vaaZ raoKaUna QarNao va ekxa ivaiSaYT mayaa_dopailakxDo vaaZ haoNaar naahI ho paahNao
kMxdmauLo, iSakxar yaaMpaasaUna kxarKaanadarIpaya_Mta jaI maanavaacaI {tk`xaMtaI JaalaI Aaho itacaa saKaaola ivacaar na kxrNao; ivaSaoYata: {YNa kxiTbaMQaata jyaa AsaMKya pa`kxarcyaa {pajaIivakxa, tyaataUna inamaa_Na haoNaarI saaMskRxitakx va saamaaijakx inayaM~aNao yaaMcaa fxar ivacaar na kxrNao
naOsaiga_kx saMsaaQanaaMcaa paunavaa_par yaaMvar Aqa_vyavasqaocaI {BaarNaI kxrNao
Aqa_Saas~a ho yauraopaataIla paunar}tqaana (Rennissance) AaiNa tyaataUna inamaa_Na Jaalaolaa AadSa_vaad yaaMvar AaQaarIta Asalyaanao yauraopa AmaoirkoxtaIla jaIvanaSaOlaI paurskRxta kxrNao
yaaMmaQyao SaotaImaQyao kxmaItakxmaI naaMgarT, {Òaoga ho kxaba_napaoXaa hayaD^aojanavar AaQaarIta, yaaMcaa paurskxar koxlaa jaataao.
tyaamauLo vaOyaiWtakx paataLIvarcyaa Avaastava va pauYkxLda samaajaivaGaatak garjaa, svaaqaa_caa Aitarokx AaiNa [tar samaaja, inasaga_ va naOsaiga_kx sauivaQaa yaaMnaa Gaatakx zrNaa%yaa AavaDI - inavaDI yaa kxSaa inayaMi~ata koxlyaa jaavyaa yaasaazI Aqa_Saas~a kxaoNataaca taaoDgaa saucavaU Sakxta naahI.
{ÒaogaaMcaI {BaarNaI paunavaa_paravar. maaoTarIMpaoXaa saayakxlaIMcao {tpaadna vaaZivaNao, pavana{jao_paasaUna yaaMi~akx {jaa_ vaapar, saaOr {jao_caa {YNataa, vaaLivaNao saarKyaa pa`ik`xyaa, garma paaNaI imaLivaNyaasaazI Asaa mayaa_idta vaapar, tasaoca sarpaNaasaazI, AaraogyaasaazI, jaOvaBaar imaLivaNyaasaazI, kxITkx, pa`aNaI, paXaI yaoNyaasaazI sqaainakx pa`jaataIMcao vaRXaaraopaNa,  AaiNa tyaadRYTInao AavaSyakx sauivaQaa paurivaNaaro vyavasaaya va QaMdo yaaMnaa {$aojana

Donmaak_x AaiNa Aa[salaVMD yaaMnaI yaa idSaonao jaI pa`gataI koxlaI Aaho taI AByaasaNao va sqaainak pairisqataIlaa AavaSyakx Asao tyaata badla kxr}na taSaa pa`kxarcaI jaIvanaSaOlaI svaIkxarNao
BaartaacaI BaaOgaaoilakx, naOsaiga_kx pairisqataI paahta ekx inaraLo taM~a&aana, inaraLI AiBayaaMi~akxI, inaraLI Aqa_vyavasqaa AaiNa yaa savaa_sa Anausar}na inaraLI iSaXaNapaÔtaI SaWya Aaho, ho ivaSad kxravao mhNaUna ho sava_ ilaihlao. yaa sava_ badlaacaa gaaBaa Aaho, yaaogya iSaXaNa, AgadI pa`aqaimakxpaasaUna {cca paataLIpaya_Mta. maaJyaa matao tao AaMtarSaas~aIya Asaavao. tyaamaQaUna ekx sava_MkxYa dRYTIkxaona tayaar haotaao, Asao malaa vaaTtao. yaaMmaQaUna tyaa tyaa ivaYayaataIla ta&a tayaar haoNaar naahIta, Asao naahI. paNa yaa ta&aaMnaahI [tar ivaYaya, [tar Xao~ao yaaMcao Baana Asaola. tyaataUna samaajaataIla mataBaod, saamaaijakx Aaraogya AaiNa samataa yaa savaa_McaIca AapaNa sava_jaNa vaaT pahata Asataao, naahI kxa?
Baartaasa AnaukUxla ASaa Aqa_vyavasqaocaa paayaa payaa_varNa ha Aaho, ho yaaMvar}na idsaUna yao[_la. saMpa$aIcao yaaogya ivatarNa samaajaata koxvaL payaa_varNaacaI kxasa Qarlyaanao hao{ Sakoxla. BaaMDvalaI gaMutavaNaUk hI inasaga_, inasagaa_taIla pairsaMsqaa AaiNa inasaga_ maaofxta paurivata Asalaolyaa sauivaQaa, yaa saudRZ va saXama raKaNyaasaazI mauKyata: JaalaI paaihjao.
pa`kxaSa gaaoLo

Thursday, January 30, 2014

                                   तंत्रज्ञान आणि जीवन 
laoKaaMkx 1
svaataM~ya imaLUna 65 vaYao_ JaalaI. yaa kxaLata pa`tyaokxalaa AaiNa pa`tyaokxIlaa matadanaacaa AiQakxar do{]na AapaNa laaokxSaahIcaa pa`yaaoga rabaivalaa. svaataM~ya caLvaLIta BarGaaosa yaaogadana doNaa%yaa kxaVMga`osa paXaanao Anaokx vaYao_ sa$aa gaajaivalaI. paMcavaaiYa_kx yaaojanaaMÓaro ivakxasaacaa maagaaovaa Gaotalaa. tyaataUna hvao tao saaQya haota nasalyaanao kxahI vaYao_ koMxd`IBaUta sa$aocaahI pa`yaaoga koxlaa, paNa taaohI jaagaitakx vyavasqaocyaa roTËata na iTkxlyaanao AaiNa kxaVMga`osanao Aapalao sqaana gamaavalyaanao [tar paXaaMnaa sa$aota vaaTa Òavaa laagalaa AaiNa SaovaTcaa pa`yaaoga jaagaitakxIkxrNaacaa kxr}na doSaataIla kxlyaaNa saaQatao kxa, ho paaihlao gaolao.
            paNa Aataa inarinaraLo Ahvaala AaiNa AakxDovaarI {GaD kxrtaahota kxI 1990 saalaapaasaUna doSaataIla garIba laaokxaMcyaa saMKyaota vaaZ haotao Aaho. evaZoca navho tar garIba garIba haotaahota paNa Ea`ImaMta AiQakx Ea`ImaMta haotaahota. jaagaitakxIkxrNaanao mauKyata: Ea`ImaMtaanaa AapalaI caOna kxrNyaacyaa AiQakxaiQakx saMQaI AaiNa vaaTa imaLalyaa tar garIbaaMnaa tyaaMcyaa AtyaavaSyakx garjaa paurivaNyaasaazI satata vaaZNaa%yaa mahagaa[_laa taaoMD Òavao laagata Aaho. 21vyaa Satakxacyaa pa`arMBaI AapalaI, doSaacaI isqataI Aaja ASaI Aaho.
            gaolyaa 60-65 vaYaa_Mta inatya laagaNaa%yaa vastaUMcaI TMcaa[_, satata vaaZtaI mahagaa[_, pa`tyahI ibaGaDNaaro payaa_varNa AaiNa satata BaoDsaavaNaarI baokxarI yaa duYT cak`xataUna AjaUna AapalaI sauTkxa kxa haota naahI? ha pa`Ena kxaoNaahI naagarIkxalaa Asvasqa kxrtaao Aaho, yaata SaMkxa naahI.
            pa`gataI vhavaI mhNaUna iva&aanaacao naaro AapaNa satata vaajaivalao. iva&aanaacaI kxasa Qarlyaanaoca ivakxasa SaWya hao[_la yaa vaaWyaalaa vaod-gaItaotalyaa ikxMvaa bauÔvacanaa[takxa ikMxvaa kuxraNaatalyaa {d\GaaoYakx evaZa Aqa_ pa`apta Jaalaa, taoca icarkxalaIna satya Aaho, Asao maanalao gaolao.
            paNa yaa GaaoYaNaocao ivaElaoYaNa kxrNyaacao pa`yatna fxarsao Jaalao naahIta. ivaSaoYata: iva&aana mhNajao naomakox kxaya? tyaacaa pa`tyaXaata Aqa_ kxaya haotaao? tao naomakxI kxaoNataI QaaorNao saucaivatao? tyaata naomakox xkxaya AiBapa`ota Asatao? yaacaa saKaaola ivacaar Jaalaolaa AaZLUna Aalaa naahI.
            paRqvaIvarcao saaro jaIvana saUyaa_paasaUna imaLNaa%yaa {]jao_var AvalaMbaUna Aaho hI jaaNaIva Aataa saava_i~akx JaalaI Aaho. taI paRqvaIvar paaocataanaa AaiNa paaohaocalyaavar kxaya haotao, kxaoNatao badla va pairNaama haotaata, ho iva&aana tapaasatao. tyaataUna pairisqataIcao jao &aana haotao, tyaamauLo maaNasaalaa Aapalao jaIvana pairisqataISaI jamavaUna kxsao jagaavayaacao ho samajatao. maa~a ikxtyaokxda pairisqataI [takxI pa`itakUxla Asatao kxI itacyaaSaI saMGaYa_ ATL Asataao. pairisqataIlaa maanavaI jaIvanaasa AnaukUxla kxr}na GaoNyaatahI iva&aana madta kxrtao. AaiNa SaovaTI maaNasaacyaa BaaOitakx sauKaata AiQakxaiQak Bar kxSaI Gaalataa yao[_la, hohI iva&aanaacyaa sahayyaanaoca AapaNa saaQya kxr} paahtaao.
pa`tyaXaata yaacaa Aqa_ Asaa haotaao kxI saUyaa_cyaa paRqvaIvar yaoNaa%yaa {]jao_caa AiQakxaiQakx Baaga maanavaakxDo vaLivaNyaacaa Aapalaa pa`yatna yaSasvaI haotaao, taao iva&aanaacaI kxasa Qarlyaanao. mhNaUnaca iva&aanaaiSavaaya AaQauinakx jaIvana ASaWya ASaI KaUNagaaz savaa_MnaI baaMQalaolaI Asatao. iva&aanaacao vyaavahairkx r}pa Aaho taM~a&aana. taM~a&aanaamauLoca yaa gaaoYTI SaWya haotaata, maaNasaacyaa {paBaaogaata, ivaivaQataa yaotao, vaaZ haotao. SaovaTI iva&aanaacaI kxasa Qara yaacaa vyavaharata Aqa_ haotaao, taM~a&aanaacaa satata svaIkxar kxrIta rha.
maa~a paRqvaIvar paaohaocaNaa%yaa saUya_SaWtaIcaa qaoT {payaaoga kxr} Sakxtaata vanaspataI. tyaa svata:ca ekx Asao rsaayana tayaar kxrtaata kxI vaataavarNaataIla kxaba_na gaVsacaa {payaaoga kxr}na Anna tayaar hao[_la AaiNa tyaapaasaUna tayaar hao[_la AaViWsajana jaao sava_ pa`aNaIsaRYTIcaa jaIva kxI pa`aNa Asaola. kxaoNatyaahI pa`kxarcyaa baa+ gaaoYTIMcaa AaQaar na Gaotaa, mhNajaoca kxaoNataahI Kaca_ na kxrtaa Anna tayaar kxrNao fx$a] vanaspataIMnaa SaWya haotao. tyaacaa kxaoNaalaahI taaoTa na haotaa fxayadaca haotaao. taM~a&aanaalaa Aajataayaagata hI ikxmayaa saaQalaolaI naahI.
            vanaspataIMcaa ha gauNaQama_ jaovha tyaanao jaaNalaa, ivaSaoYata: vanaspataI jao Anna tayaar kxrtaata, tao tyaaMcyaa tar jagaNyaacyaa sava_ garjaa Baagaivatao paNa tyaa iSallakxI AnnahI tayaar kxrtaata, kxI jyaavar [tar sava_ jaIva jagataata, ho jaovha maaNasaanao jaaNalao taovha ho iSalakxI Anna vaaZivaNyaacao taM~a&aana tyaanao AacarNaata AaNaNyaasa saur}vaata koxlaI. savaa_Mnaa maahIta Aahoca kxI ho taM~a&aana mhNajao SaotaI. AapaNaaMsa {payau$a] AsaNaa%yaa vanaspataI ekx~a kxr}na tyaa jaaopaasaUna mhNajaoca saUya_Sa$a]I tyaaMnaaca imaLola, [tar jyaa vanaspataI tyaaMcyaaSaI spaQaa_ kxr} paahtaIla ASaaMnaa naYT kxr}na ho iSalakxI Anna sava_cyaasava_ Aapalyaalaaca imaLola ASaI maaNasaanao vyavasqaa koxlaI. maa~a ho iSalakxI Anna satata imaLta rahNyaasaazI fxar pairEa`ma kxravao laagataata, Kaca_ kxravaa laagataao, navanavaIna SaaoQa laavaavao laagataata, evaZoca navho tar ASaa rItaInao saUya_Sa$a]I vaLivaNyaasaazI kRxi~amarItyaa tayaar koxlaolyaa {jao_caa AiQakxaiQakx vaapar kxravaa laagataao AaiNa tyaamauLo Kaca_ AiQakxca vaaZtaao,  ho SaotaIta haoNaa%yaa sauQaarNaaMmauLo AaiNa yaaMi~ak  SaotaImauLo tyaacyaa laXaata yao{] laagalao. mhNajaoca {]jao_cao ekx pairmaaNa (yauinaT) jaovha AaQauinakx SaotaIta vaaparlao jaatao, taovha iSalakxI Anna imaLtao 0.05.
            yaacaa Aqa_ Asaa kxI SaotaI fxar maaozËa pa`maaNaavar kxrNao ho fxayadoSaIr zrta naahI. ASaI SaotaI sarkxarI madtaIiSavaaya ASaWya Asatao. SaotaIcyaa Kacaa_ta itacyaamauLo haoNaa%yaa payaa_varNaacyaa naukxsaanaIcaa Kaca_ kxaoNaIca Qarta naahI. taao Qarlaa tar AnnaQaanyaacyaa ikMxmataI [taWyaa vaaZtaIla kxI sava_saamaanyaaMnaa parvaDNaar naahIta AaiNa sarkxarhI [takox Anaudana doNyaapaUvaI_ Anaokxda ivacaar kxrola.
            vanaspataI jao pa`kxaSasaMElaoYaNaaÓaro Anna tayaar kxrtaata Kacaa_ivanaa, tao taM~a&aanaalaa SaWya naahI. BaivaYyaata pa`kxaSasaMElaoYaNa taM~a&aanaalaa saaQya Jaalao tar tyaalaa evaZa Kaca_ yao[_la kxI tyaacaa saava_i~akx {payaaoga kxrtaa yaoNaar naahI.
pa`kxaSasaMElaoYaNa ASaWya Asalyaanao taM~a&aanaalaa kxaoNataahI badla, pairvata_na kxrNyaasaazI baahor}na {]jaa_ pa`apta kxravaI laagatao. Aaja ho {]jao_cao s~aaota Aahota mauKyata: kxaoLsaa AaiNa taola. ANau{]jaa_ inamaa_Na kxrNyaasaazIhI yaa daonhIMcaI madta GyaavaIca laagatao. {]jao_cao ho daonhI s~aaota mhNajao inasagaa_nao kxaoTËvaQaI vaYao_ saazivalaolaI saUyaa_caI {]jaa_ca Aaho. saUyaa_caI {]jaa_ paRqvaIvar yaotao taI AtyaMta ivaKarIta svar}paata. vanaspataIca taI ekxi~ata kxr} Sakxtaata, AaiNa hIca {]jaa_ vanaspataI jaovha marNa paavataata va gaaDlyaa jaataata, taovha jaimanaIcyaa paaoTata jaatao. taI tayaar kxrNyaacao kxama AaiNa Kaca_ inasaga_ca saaosataao. AapaNa taM~a&aanaaÓaro taI baahor kxaZtaao evaZoca. inasagaa_kxDUna taM~a&aanaalaa imaLalaolao ho Anaudanaca Aaho. Subsidy Aaho. hI doNagaI, ho Anaudana nasaola tar Aajacao taM~a&aana SaWyaca haoNaar naahI. naahItar maaNasaalaa taM~a&aanaacaa vaapar kxrNyaasa Avaacyaasavaa Kaca_ Aalaa Asataa.
Aajacao taM~a&aana ho mauKyata: inasagaa_cyaa yaa Anaudanaavar AaQaarIta Aaho, tyaamauLo SaWya Jaalao Aaho, ho savaa_MnaI laXaata zovalao paaihjao.
taM~a&aanaalaa hI jaSaI ekx Subsidy imaLtao, taSaIca payaa_varNyaacyaa hanaIcaa Kaca_ ivacaarata na GaoNyaacyaa pa`qaomauLohI taM~a&aanaacaa vaapar saukxr haotaao.
AaOÒaoigakx k`xaMtaInao jao taM~a&aana ivakxisata koxlao tao parvaDNaaro Jaalao daona gaaoYTIMmauLo: kxaoLsaa AaiNa taola yaaMcyaa ikMxmataI rajakxarNa KaoLUna kxmaItakxmaI raKalyaa gaolyaa AaiNa payaa_varNaacyaa hanaIcaa Kaca_ Aijabaata ivacaarata Gaotalaa gaolaa naahI. AmaoirkoxsaarKyaa doSaanao jao kxDkx inayama svaIkxarlao Aahota, tyaamauLo Aataa Amaoirkoxta AaOÒaoigakx {tpaadna AitaSaya mahaga ikMxvaa ASaWya banalao Aaho. pa`caMD AnaudanaaiSavaaya AmaoirkoxtaIla taaMi~akx SaotaI AaiNa {Òaoga caalaNaar naahIta.
taM~a&aanaalaa AaNaKaI ekx subsidy imaLtao taI tyaacaa vaapar kxrNaa%yaa laaokxaMkxDUna. taM~a&aanaaÓaro jaovha {]jao_caa {payaaoga kxr}na kxaoNatyaahI vastaUmaQyao pairvata_na GaDvaUna AaNalao jaatao, taovha pairvata_naacyaa ik`xyaolaa BaaOitakxSaas~aacaa inayama laagaU haotaao (Law of Entropy). yaanausaar ASaa pairvata_naata tayaar haoNaara kxcara maala ha tayaar maalaapaoXaa jaasta Asataao. yaacaaca Aqa_ Asaa kxI pairvata_naasaazI idlao jaaNaaro Input kxccaa maala ho Output paWkxax maala paoXaa jaasta Asatao.
pairvata_naacyaa ik`xyaota tayaar haoNaara kxcara maala ha AaOÒaoigakx k`xaMtaI pa`tyaXaata AalyaanaMtar ikxtyaokx vaYao_ inasagaa_taca Takxlaa jaata haotaa. mhNajaoca inasaga_ pa`dUiYata koxlaa jaata haotaa. tyaacaI kxaoNaasaca iXataI navhtaI. iSavaaya kxmaItakxmaI pagaar do{]na nafxa vaaZivaNyaacaI pa`vaR$aI Asalyaanao paur}Ya kxamagaaraMeovajaI maihlaa kxamagaar naomaNao, [takoxca naahI tar baalakxamagaar naomaNao yaa gaaoYTIhI sara_sa haota haotyaa. tyaamauLo saamaaijakx Aaraogya QaaoWyaata yaota haotao. pauZo jaovha samaajaataIla ivacaavaMtaaMnaI yaa hainakxarkx gaaoYTI samaajaapauZo maaMDUna ho ivadarkx kRxtya {GaD koxlao, tyaavaoLI hLUhLU kxayado kxr}na yaa gaaoYTIMnaa paayabaMd Gaatalaa gaolaa.

Aaja Baartaata kxamagaar ivaYayakx, tyaaMnaa kxmaItakxmaI vaotana doNyaabaabata kxayado Aistatvaata Aahota, tasaoca payaa_varNaacaI hanaI hao{] nayao mhNaUnahI kxayado Aahota. paNa tyaaMcaI AMmalabajaavaNaI pa`amaaiNakxpaNao AaiNa kxsaUna koxlaI jaata naahI. tyaamauLoca taM~a&aanaacaI ma$a]odarI caalaU rahtao, evaZoca navho tar parkxIya BaaMDvalaalaa AamaMi~ata kxr}na taM~a&aanaacaa AiQakxaiQakx pa`saar kxsaa hao[_la ho paaihlao jaatao. taM~a&aanaacyaa Ea`oYztvaacaa pagaDa janamaanasaavar pa`Kar Asalyaanao janataahI saamaUihkxrItyaa yaaivar}Ô Aavaaja {zvaIta naahI. payaa_varNaacaI hanaI haota Asalyaanao payaa_varNavaadI tyaaivar}Ô Aavaaja {zivataata paNa tyaaMnaa vaoDËata kxaZlao jaatao. taM~a&aanaamauLo Kacaa_ta satata haoNaarI vaaZ AaiNa payaa_varNaacaI hanaI TaLNyaasaazI {paaya kxaya yaacaI cacaa_ pauZIla laoKaata kxr}. 
payaa_yaI jaIvana
jaagaitakx janamaanasaavar taM~a&aanaaca pagaDa basaNyaamaagao yauraopamaQyao jao ekx tatva&aana 17 vyaa AaiNa 18 vyaa Satakxata ivakxisata Jaalao tao pa`aya: kxarNaIBaUta Aaho. tyaamaQyao vya$a]I svaataM~yaavar Bar idlaa gaolaa. ivaSaoYata: pa`tyaokxlaa Aapalyaa AavaDIinavaDI nausaar maagaNaI naaoMdivaNyaacao svaataM~ya Asalao paaihjao yaavar Bar idlaa gaolaa. tyaamauLo jaI {tpaadna paÔtaI pa`tyaXaata AalaI taImaQyao {tpaadna vaaZIvar AaiNa tyaapaasaUna AiQakxaiQakx nafxa kxsaa imaLola, yaaMvar laXa koMxid`ta Jaalao. yaacavaoLI kxaoLsaa AaiNa laaoKaMD yaa KainajaaMcao saazo saapaDlao AaiNa tyaapaasaUnacyaa {]jao_var caalaNaarI yaM~ao pa`caarata AalaI. [MglaMDmaQyao yaaca saumaarasa kuxLaMkxDUna SaotaI kxaZUna Gao{]na taI maaozËa pa`maaNaavar kxrNyaacaI pa`qaa paDlaI. yaa baokxar Jaalaolyaa kuxLaMnaa navaIna inaGaalaolyaa kxarKaanyaata naaokxrI imaLalaI paNa taI kxmaItakxmaI vaotanaavar. payaa_varNaakxDo dula_Xa JaalyaamauLo kxarKaanyaaMcyaamauLo jaI Sahro maaozI JaalaI, tyaavar kxawyaakux× vaataavarNaacao AavarNa basalao.
vyai$a]svaataM~yaacaa pa`tyaXaata pairNaama mhNajao saMpa$aIcao koMxd`IkxrNa, kxamagaaraMcaI Avanata isqataI AaiNa ibaGaDlaolao payaa_varNa Asaa Jaalaa. yaaivar}Ô maaWsa_nao Aavaaja {zivalaa AaiNa kxamagaar hoca saMpa$aIcao maalakx Jaalao paaihjaota hI gaaoYT ihrIrInao pauZo maaMDlaI.  maa~a pa`tyaXaata tyaacaahI pairNaama kxmyauinaJamaÓaro sa$aocao koMxd`IkxrNa haoNyaataca Jaalaa. kxamagaaraMcaI isqataI sauQaarNyaasaazI kxmyauinasT sa$aaQaa%yaaMnaI doSaataIla saaQanasaMpa$aIcaI maalakxI sarkxarI koxlaI. paNa tyaataUna inamaa_Na JaalaI hukuxmaSaahI. BaaMDvalaSaahIlaa (Capaitalism) paayabaMd basalaa tarI kxamagaaraMcao kxlyaaNa saaQalao gaolao naahI. vya$a]Ilaa maagaNaI naaoMdivaNyaacaa jaao AiQakxar haotaa, taao paUNa_ta: dDpalaa gaolaa. raYT^acao baL vaaZivaNao mhNajao AiQakxaiQakx ivanaaSakxarI Sas~aaMcaI inaima_taI kxr}na sarkxarI sa$aa vaaZivaNyaacao pa`yaaoga koxlao gaolao.
yaamaQaUna maaga_ kxaZNyaacaa, ekx pa`kxarcaa maQyamamaaga_ AacarNaata AaNaNyaacaa pa`yaaoga Baartaanao koxlaa.  mahatmaa gaaMQaIMsaarKao mahana vyai$a]tva taM~a&aanaacyaa ivaraoQaata Asalyaanao pa`aqaimakx taM~a&aana, KaoDËataIla jaIvana sauQaarNyaavar Bar, janataocyaa pa`aqaimakx garjaa BaagaivaNyaavar Bar idlaa gaolaa AaiNa paihlyaa paMcavaaiYa_kx yaaojanaocyaa AKaorI tyaacao saupairNaama idsaUnahI Aalao. paNa tyaanaMtar maa~a BaartaIya vaOiSaYTËaMcao ho Baana sauTlao AaiNa kVxipaTVilaJama, kxmyauinaJama (saaoSaVilaJama) yaaMcaa baaolabaalaa paunha saur} Jaalaa. BaaMDvalaSaahIlaa mayaa_idta Xao~ao
KaulaI zovaUna sarkxarIrItyaa taM~a&aanaavar AaQaarIta pa`caMD gauMtavaNaUkx koxlaI gaolaI. tyaamauLo raYT^acyaa itajaaorItaIla parkxIya calana gaMgaajaLI irtaI hao{]na (Sterling balance) sarkxarvarIla kxjaa_caa baaojaa vaaZtaca gaolaa. maa~a ikMxmataIvar sarkxarI inayaM~aNa Asalyaanao KaajagaI {ÒaogaaMcao svaataM~ya mayaa_idta raihlao AaiNa tyaacaa fxayada sava_saamaanya janataolaa imaLalaa. [Midra gaaMQaI sa$aovar Asaotaao hI isqataI iTkxlaI. tyaanaMtar maa~a {darIkxrNaacao vaaro vaahU laagalao, sarkxarI inayaM~aNao iSaiqala JaalaI, payaa_varNaacao saMrXaNa kxrNaaro fxayado inaYpa`Ba hao{] laagalao AaiNa 1990 naMtar {darIkxrNaataUna paaEcaatya ivacaarsarNaI AaiNa taM~a&aanaacao pa`Bautva AapaNa paUNa_paNao svaIkxarlao. yaacao dRSya pairNaama mhNajao satata vaaZtaI mahagaa[_ AaiNa Ea`ImaMta va garIba yaaMcyaataIla r}MdavaNaarI drI. ekx saXama maQmama vaga_ inamaa_Na Jaalaa Kara- taM~a&aanaacao vaca_sva AsaNaara paNa taLagaaLataIla laaokxaMcaI saMKyaa vaaZtaca gaolaI.
varIla ivavaocanaavar}na ekx laXaata yao[_la kxI kVxipaTVilaJama, kxmyauinaJma saarKaI paaEcaatya tatva&aanao mauKyata: AaOÒaoigakx {tpaadna AaiNa saMpa$aIcaI inaima_taI yaaMvar Bar dotaata. saMpa$aIcao yaaogya ivatarNa kxrNyaacao taM~a tyaamaQyao basaivalaolao AaZLta naahI. yaa {laT maM. gaaMQaIMcao tatva&aana saMpa$aIcyaa ivatarNaavar AaiNa tyaaÓaro saaQaNaa%yaa saamaaijakx {nnataIvar Bar doNaaro Asalao tarI tao jyaa paÔtaInao samaajaata pasarivalao gaolao, taI paÔta navaIna {dyaasa Aalaolyaa maQyama vagaa_sa, sauiSaiXataaMnaa AaiNa tyaaMcyaaca ivacaaraMcaa pagaDa Asalaolyaa rajakxarNyaaMcyaa pacanaI paDlaI naahI. pairNaamaI tao paunha paaEcaatya taM~a&aanaakxDoca AakxiYa_ta Jaalao AaiNa kxmyauinasT sa$aa kxaolamaDlyaanao Aataa taM~a&aanaaiQaiYzta paaEcaatya tatva&aanaacaaca baaolabaalaa Aapalyaa doSaata paunha saur} Jaalaa.
yaavar taaoDgaa kxahI AaiSayaayaI raYT^aMnaI SaaoQaUna kxaZlaa Aaho, {da. isaMgaapaUr, malaoiSayaa, Ea`IlaMkxa, taOvaana, diXaNa kxaoirAa, ifxilapaInsa.  tyaaMnaa Aaja Asian Tigers saMbaaoiQalao jaatao. sauQaarNaaMcaI saur}vaata tyaaMnaI jaimanaIcyaa maalakxIcao ivakoMxd`IkxrNa kxrNyaapaasaUna koxlaI (Land Reform). tyaacabaraobar tyaaMnaI saava_i~akx iSaXaNaakxDohI laXa do{]na janataolaa sauiSaiXata banaivalao. Baartaanao yaa gaaoYTIMvar AjaUnahI Bar idlaolaa naahI, ho laXaata Gaotalao paaihjao.
Baartaanao Anaokx paMcavaaiYa_kx yaaojanaa rabaivalyaa Ka%yaa paNa Anaokx maUlaBaUta gaaoYTIMkxDo dula_Xa Jaalao. Baarta {YNa kxiTbaMQaataIla doSa Aaho, mhNajao naomakox kxaya, yaacao qaoT {$ar Aapalyaa iSaXaNaata idlao jaata naahI. AilakxDcyaa saMSaaoQanaataUna idsatao kxI jagaacyaa BaUmaIpaOkxI 2 TWkox BaUmaI Baartaanao vyaapalaI Aaho, paNa Baartaata jaagaitakx jaOvaivaivaQataopaOkxI (Biodiversity) 8 TWkox ivaivaQataa {palabQa Aaho. Baarta ha jaOvavaOivaQya Asalaolaa doSa Aaho, AaiNa yaa ivaivaQataonao maaNasaalaa jagaNyaasaazI Anaokx payaa_ya idlaolao Aahota. yaa payaa_yaaMcao &aana AaidvaasaI (Tribals) jamaataIMnaa jaovaZo Asatao, taovaZo sauiSaiXataaMnaa nasatao. taM~a&aanaacaa svaIkxar koxlaa kxI ivaivaQataa laaopa paavaUna ekxsaarKaopaNaa yaotaao. payaa_ya naYT koxlyaacaI jaaNaIva haotao AvaYa_Na Jaalao, naOsaiga_kx Aapa$aI Aalyaa kxI tyaaMnaa taaoMD doNyaasa taM~a&aana Apauro paDtao.
inasagaa_caa samyakx ivacaarhI Aapalyaa iSaXaNaata naahI. AapaNa saaoyaIsaazI inasagaa_cao ivaBaaga koxlao Aahota: {da. BaUSaas~a, vanaspataISaas~a, pa`aNaISaas~a, paXaISaas~a vagaOro. BaaOitakxI (Physics), rsaayanaSaas~a, gaiNata, saMKyaaSaas~a tasaoca BaUgaaola, [itahasa, samaajaSaas~a, vaMSaSaas~a, vaOÒkx yaaMcyaaSaI tyaaMcaI saaMgaD GaatalaI jaata naahI. pairNaamaI ivaÒaqyaa_sa inasagaa_cao evaZoca navho tar maanavaI jaIvanaacaohI samyaga\ Aakxlana haota naahI. iSaXaNa ho inarinarawyaa Saas~aaMcyaa parspar saMbaMQaaMvar AaQaarIta hvao. taM~a&aana ho savaa_Msa paUrkx zrNaaro ekx Avajaar (Tool) Aaho, ho AapaNa laXaata Gaotalao paaihjao.
Aaja yaa pairisqataIta sauQaarNaa haoNao jar}r Asaola tar iSaXaNa savaa_MsaazI AaiNa samyakx (Holistic) dRYTIvar AaQaarlaolao hvao; vyavasaaya, naaokx%yaa, saMSaaoQana ho  mauKyata: jaOvaivaivaQataocao, inasagaa_cao saMrXaNa, saMvaQa_na yaaMtaUna pa`apta Jaalyaa paaihjaota; AaiNa taM~a&aanaacaa vaapar ekx Avajaar (Tool) mhNaUna Jaalaa paihjao.
Aajacyaa pairisqataIlaa payaa_yaI vyavasqaa saucavaayacaI JaalaI tar itacaa paayaa vya$a]I AaiNa vyai$a]svaataM~ya haca Asaola. maa~a vyai$a]svaataM~ya mhNajao Ainaba_MQa AavaDinavaD navho. vya$a]I jaI inavaD kxrIla tyaavar samaajaacaa AMkuxSa hvaa. Asaa AMkuxSa rajakxIya sa$aonao laavalaa tar hukuxmaSaahI inamaa_Na haotao, ho [itahasa saaMgataao. ha AMkuxSa ivavaokxavar AaQaarIta hvaa AaiNa ha ivavaokx svayaMsaovaI saMGaTnaaMkxDUna pa`taIta Jaalaa paaihjao. yaacaaca Aqa_ Asaa kxI samaajaataIla pa`tyaokx vya$a]Inao Aapalyaa AavaDIcyaa svayaMsaovaI saMsqaaMcao sadsyatva svaIkxarlao paaihjao. yaa saMsqaaMnaI Aapalyaa sadsyaaMsaazI ekx AacaarsaMihtaa tayaar kxrayalaa hvaI kxI ijacyaaÓaro saBaasadaMcyaa AavaDIinavaDIlaa ivaQaayakx vaLNa laagaola, samaajaivaGaatakx ivacaarsarNaI, Aacaar AaiNa AavaDinavaD yaaMnaa qaara imaLNaar naahI. rajakxIya sa$aocao ho kxama rahIla kxI ASaa saMGaTnaaMÓaro samaajaivaGaatakx ivacaar, Aacaar AaiNa AavaDinavaD pa`saRta koxlaI jaata naahI ho paahNao.
yaa svayaMsaovaI saMsqaa vyavasaayaavar AaQaarIta AsataIla, ivaiSaYT ivaYayaataIla saMSaaoQana AaiNa cacaa_ yaaMvar AaQaarIta AsataIla, vyaapaar AaiNa dovaGaova yaaMvar AaQaarIta AsataIla, kxlaakxaOSalyao yaaMvar AaQaarIta AsataIla, ivaiSaYT ivaQaayakx mataaMcaa  pa`caar kxrNaa%yaa AsataIla, Qama_ va paMqa yaaMvar hI AaQaarIta AsataIla. maa~a tyaa ivaQaayakx kxaya_ kxrIta Aahota, Taokxacao ivacaar pa`saRta kxrIta naahIta, ho paahNao sarkxarcao kxta_vya Asaola. tyaaMcyaakxDUna mauKya ApaoXaa ASaI kxI tyaa jaI AacaarsaMihtaa svaIkxartaIla tyaataUna sadsad\ivavaokx bauÔIvar AaQaarIta {paBaaoga va {paBaaogya vastaU yaaMcyaa {tpaadnaasa caalanaa imaLola.
vya$a]Ilaa jyaacyaa tyaacyaa {tpannaanausaar AavaDinavaDIcao svaataM~ya Asaola paNa ASaI AavaDinavaD ivaQaayakx Asaola, samaajaivaGaatakx nasaola, ho yaa saMsqaa paahtaIla. tyaacapa`maaNao jyaacyaa tyaacyaa bauÔIma$aonausaar, kxaOoSalyaanausaar, iSaXaNaanausaar saMpa$aI imaLivaNyaasa, KaajagaI maalama$aa jamaivaNyaasa vya$a]Ilaa svaataM~ya Asaola paNa taI AvaOQa maagaa_nao jamaivalaI jaaNaar naahI, ho yaa svayaMsaovaI saMsqaa paahtaIla. tasaoca naOsaiga_kx saaQanasaMpa$aIvar eKaaÒa vya$a]Icaa hWkx Asaola, tar itacaa ivainayaaoga kxrNyaacao itacao svaataM~ya svaMyasaovaI saMsqaacyaa AacaarsaMihtaonausaar zroÊ ikMxvaa mayaa_idta hao[_Ê.
Aaiqa_kx vyavaharacaa paayaa mauKyata: jaOvaBaar, jaOvaivaivaQataa AaiNa jaOivakx &aana Asaa AsaoÊ. taM~a&aana navho. taM~a&aanaacaa {payaaoga mauKyata: naOsaiga_kx saaQanasaMpa$aIcaa djaa_ sauQaarNao-vaaZivaNao, inasagaa_kxDUna jyaa sauivaQaa savaa_Mnaa fuxkxT imaLtaata, {da. AaViWsajanayau$a] vaataavarNa, kxITkxaMÓaro baIjavahna, gaaoDo paaNaI, saupaIkx jamaIna, vanao, gavataaL pa`doSa Asao naOsaiga_kx AiQavaasa, ikxnaa%yaaÊa ÊagaUna AsaÊoÊa samaud`acaa Baaga va KaaDËa vagaOro, yaa sauivaQaaMcaa djaa_ raKaNao-sauQaarNao (pa`duYaNaapaasaUna tyaaMnaa vaacaivaNao) Asaa AsaoÊ. yaamauLo samaajaata saMpa$aIcao vaaTpa samapa`maaNaata haoNyaasa madta hao[_Ê AaiNa Aaja jao mahtva inavvaL paOSaaÊa AaÊo Aaho, tao inasaga_, naOsaiga_kx saaQanasaMpa$aI AaiNa naOsaiga_kx sauivaQaa yaaMnaa yao[_Ê.
samaajaataIÊ vyavasaaya, {Òaoga, naaokx%yaa yaa mauKyata: inasaga_, naOsaiga_kx saaQanasaMpa$aIcaa djaa_ va jaOvaBaar, naOsaiga_kx sauivaQaa yaaMcaI raKaNa, djaa_ vaaZivaNao va tyaaMcaa icarMjaIvaI {paBaaoga GaoNao, yaaMvar AaQaairta AsataIÊ. kxaoLsaa va taoÊ yaaMsaarKaI {]jao_caI saaQanao yaa savaa_McaI doKaBaaÊ, taMdur]staI AaiNa paunar]jjaIvana yaaMsaazI mauKyata: vaaparÊI jaataIÊ.
inasagaa_cyaa paunar]jjaIvanaataUna Anaokx vyavasaaya va naaokx%yaa tayaar hao{] SakxtaIÊ yaaMta SaMkxa naahI. paunar]jjaIvanaamauLo raYT^Iya saMpa$aIta satata Bar paDoÊ AaiNa mahagaa[_caa Basmaasaur naahIsaa hao{]na samaajakxlyaaNa saaQaÊo jaa[_Ê.
yaacaa Aqa_ kxarKaanadarI Aijabaata nakxao Asaa naahI. paNa taI Êhana pa`maaNaavar, ivakoMxid`ta svar]paacaI AaiNa sava_saamaanyaaMcyaa garjaa paurivaNaarI hvaI. navanavaIna AaiÊSaana maaoTarI baajaarata AaNaNaarI nakxao. tyaacabaraobar jaimanaIcaI maaÊkxI vaOyai$a]kx paNa tyaata kxaoNataI ipakox GyaayacaI, tyaasaazI paaNaI, Katao, Avajaaro yaaMcao vaaTpa kxsao kxrayacao ho gaavapaataLIvar, ga`amasaBaota ivacaar ivainamaya hao{]na zrÊo paaihjao.
SaotaI {tpaadnaata pa`aQaanya Asaavao sqaainakx janataocyaa garjaa paurivaNyaalaa. tyaanaMtar jaI jamaIna va [tar saaQanasaMpa$aI (Resources) iSallakx rahtaIla tyaaMcaa {payaaoga baajaarpaoz AaiNa inayaa_ta yaaMcyaa garjaa BaagaivaNyaasaazI vhavaa. tasaoca Kainaja taola, kxaoLsaa, yaaMcaa vaapar samaajaacyaa garjaa paurivaNyaasaazI pa`aya: Jaalaa paaihjao. {da. vaIja va paaNaI paurvaza, saava_jainakx vaahtaUkx, pa`aqaimakx AaiNa maaQyaimakx iSaXaNa kxI jao inasaga_, naOsaiga_kx saaQanasaMpa$aI AaiNa naOsaiga_kx sauivaQaa yaaMbaabata Saas~aaQaarIta &aana va tyaaMcaa yaaogya vaapar kxsaa kxrayacaa ho QaDo ivaÒaqyaa_naa do[_la.
kxaoLsaa AaiNa taola yaaMcaa vaapar Ainaba_MQa vaOyai$a]kx AavaDinavaD, koMxd`IBaUta taM~a&aana AaiNa inavvaL paaEcaatyaaMcao AnaukxrNa, Asaa haotaa kxamaa nayao. mhNajaoca BaaOitakx Saas~aaMcyaa inayamaaMmauLo jyaa mayaa_da yaotaata, tyaataUna pauYkxLSaI sauTkxa hao[_la AaiNa {tpaadnaapaoXaa kxcara maala jaasta tayaar haoNaar naahI.
rajakxIya sa$aa laaokxSaahI tatvaavar AsaNao yaaogyaca Aaho. sarkxarcaI kxta_vyao mauKyata: kxaoNataI, ho vaoLaovaoLI saaMigatalaoca Aaho. vaOyai$a]kx maalakxIcaa {payaaoga saaQanasaMpa$aIcaa saaza kxr}na taao dabaUna zovaNao, tyaacyaa ivak`xIvar ikMxvaa KarodIvar qaaoDËa laaokxaMcaI ikMxvaa CaoTËa samaUhacaI ma$a]odarI AsaNao, yaaMcaa baMdaobastahI sarkxarlaa kxravaa laagaola.
bacata AaiNa saMpa$aIcaI inaima_taI pa`aya: vaOyai$a]kx bauiÔma$aa, kxaOSalya AaiNa {ÒmaSaIlataa yaaMvar AvalaMbaUna Asaola AaiNa BaaMDvalaI gauMtavaNaUkx mauKyata: svayaMsaovaI saMsqaa AaiNa tyaaMcao maaga_dSa_na yaaMvar zrola. tasaoca saaQanasaMpa$aIcyaa vaOyai$a]kx maalakxItaUna yaaogya tao BaaDo Aakxar}na vya$a]Ilaa {tpanna imaLivataa yao[_la. maa~a yaaMmaQyao sa×abaajaI AaiNa Avaacyaasavvaa BaaDo AakxarNaI haota naahI naa, ho sarkxarlaa pahavao laagaola. sarkxarI QaaorNa AaKataanaa naOsaiga_kx saaQanasaMpa$aIbaabatacaa saKaaola, Saas~aIya &aanaaMcaa AaQaar AavaSyakx maanalaa jaavaa.  tasaoca laaokxsaMKyaa vaaZIvarhI inayaM~aNa sarkxarcao AsaNao AavaSyakx Aaho.
Aqa_vyavasqaocaa gaaBaa inasaga_ AaiNa inasaga_saMpa$aIcaa yaaogya vaapar va itacao paunar}jjaIvana Asaa hvaa. inasagaa_caI ivaBaagaNaI kxr}na ( {da. SaotaI va vanao) tyaaMpaOkxI kxahIMnaa pa`aQaanya AaiNa [taraMkxDo dula_Xa hI pairisqataI badlalaI paaihjao. saoMid`ya SaotaI, {]jao_saazI hayaD^aojana saarKyaa navaIna s~aaotaaMcaa {payaaoga yaaMvar saMSaaoQana koMxid`ta koxlao paaihjao. saUya_{]jao_caa {payaaoga paaNaI taapaivaNao, Garo {badar ikMxvaa qaMD raKaNao, kxpaDo vaaLivaNao Asaa hao[_la tarca paunha BaaOitakx inayamaaMpaasaUna itacaI sauTkxa hao[_la. pavana{]jao_caa {payaaoga Asaaca ivaQaayakxrItyaa hao{] Sakoxla, maa~a tyaasaazI pa`caMD Aakxaracyaa pavanacaWWyaa {Baar}na koMxd`IBaUta {]jaa_ inamaa_Na kxrNao TaLlaoxpaaihjao kxarNa ASaa sava_ gaaoYTI kxaoLsaa va Kainaja taola yaaMcyaa vaaparaivanaa SaWya haota naahIta.                                                                                                                          paaEcaatya doSaaMmaQyao Anaokx lahanasahana janasamaUhaMnaI ASaI saaQaI, kxmaI gauMMtaagauMtaIcaI paNa Aqa_pauNa_ AaiNa samaaQaana doNaarI jaIvanaSaOlaI, AacarNyaasa saur}vaata koxlaI Aaho. tyaaMnaI raYT^Iya Aqa_vyavasqaopaasaUna fxarkxta Gao{]na svata:cao calana (Currency) hI vaaparata AaNalao Aaho. ekxmaokxaMnaa saovaa-sauivaQaa paurivaNyaavar tyaaMcaI Aqa_vyavasqaa AaQaarlaolaI Aaho.
Aaja payaa_yaI Aqa_vyavasqaocaa savaa_Mnaaca ivacaar kxravaa laagata Aaho, kxarNa kxaoLsaa va taola yaaMcao saazo koxvha naa koxvha saMpaNaar Aahota. inasaga_samaRÔ Baartaalaa Anaokx pa`kxarcaI saaQanasaMpa$aI AaiNa taI vaaparNyaacao Anaokx payaa_ya {palabQa Aahota. garIbaI paOSaavar zrta naahI tar Asao Anaokx payaa_ya naYT Jaalao tar bahusaMKyaaMnaa jaIvanaca ASaWya haotao AaiNa tao garIbaIcyaa Kaa[_ta laaoTlao jaataata. ho payaa_ya jaaopaasalao mhNajaoca inasaga_ samaRÔ koxlaa tar caMgaLvaad, garIbaI AaiNa kxmaalaIcaI saamaaijakx ivaYamataa yaaMpaasaUna AapalaI sauTkxa hao[_la.                                                                             
                                                                                                                           pa`kxaSa gaaoLo